Research Publications

Cached 167


Chien-Fei Chen, Marilena De Simone, Selin Yilmaz, Xiaojing Xu, Zhe Wang, Tianzhen Hong, Yiqun Pan. Building and Environment, 2021-10

ABSTRACT | Occupants' adaptive strategies play an important role in the energy consumption of office buildings. Previous research has mostly focused on the adaptive strategies triggered by occupants' indoor discomfort; however, it is crucial to understand if specific adaptive strategies are linked to occupants' energy-saving intentions. This study explores the relationships among employees’ heuristic decision-making in their first choice of adaptive strategies (technological solutions or personal adjustments) when facing extreme discomfort conditions, and their energy-saving intentions, then links these patterns with building design, workplace contextual factors, and demographics. A cross-sectional survey was collected among university employees from China, Brazil, Italy, Poland, Switzerland, and the US. Our results demonstrated that the accessibility to indoor environmental controls (IECs) and office type are the significant factors for adaptive strategies. There was a positive relationship between the number of IEC features and the percentage of employees choosing a technological solution. When feeling too hot, occupants in private offices are more likely to adopt a technological solution, whereas occupants in cubicles are more likely to choose a personal adjustment. Occupants with energy-saving intentions are less likely to choose thermostat adjustments or use portable devices as adaptive strategies than their counterparts. Finally, the cluster analysis suggests females were more likely to use adaptive strategies for energy-saving purposes than males. The majority of occupants would turn on/off lighting to save energy. The study provides the contributions in the connection between the heuristic decision-making process and energy-saving intentions and recommendations on design strategies for building architects, engineers, and managers.


Xiaolei Yuan, Zhisen Chen, Yumin Liang, Yiqun Pan, Juha Jokisalo, Risto Kosonen. Building and Environment, 2021-07

ABSTRACT | Swimming halls (SHs), which belong to special building sector, are easily overlooked as significant energy users and carbon producers. The demands of heat (e.g., pool water heating, domestic hot water, space and supply air heating) and electricity (e.g., Saunas, pool pumping and ventilation) in SHs are both very high, which indicates the high energy saving potentials. This paper comprehensively introduced and summarized the energy-saving potentials mainly for the heating system in SHs. After briefly introducing the global energy and building energy backgrounds, the energy system of SHs was firstly introduced, including its energy use and breakdown, ventilation demand, and heat losses. Then, renewable and sustainable energy sources applied in SHs were reviewed, especially solar energy application in terms of individual solar-assisted heating and hybrid solar-assisted heat pump systems, while geothermal and biomass and other energy applications were also introduced briefly. Furthermore, building energy management (BEM) strategies were introduced and summarized comprehensively, including waste heat utilization, prediction of energy demand and consumption, control and optimization of HVAC system, and demand response potentials of both electricity and district heat. In the discussion part, the recommendations of high-efficient or energy-saving technologies in SHs were given as well as the future development. Finally, suggestions were given for achieving energy efficiency and carbon reduction in SHs via using renewable energy sources (especially solar energy), optimizing the energy and HVAC systems, possible waste heat recoveries, and applying demand response of energy. In addition, establishing feasible and comprehensive energy indexes to evaluate energy use in SHs is also essential in the future.


Xiaolei Yuan, Leo Lindroos, Juha Jokisalo, Risto Kosonen, Yiqun Pan, Hui Jin. Energy and Buildings, 2021-05

ABSTRACT | In this paper, the demand response of district heating for swimming pools and pool space air is proposed and applied in a swimming hall in Finland. Swimming halls have significant heat demands e.g., domestic hot water supply, space heating and pool water heating, and thus have much large heat storage capacity for the realization of district-heat based demand response. A dynamic building simulation tool IDA ICE was used to simulate whole swimming hall including pools and HVAC systems. In addition, a rule-based demand response algorithm which utilized dynamic district heat price was proposed and applied in the district heating control of the studied swimming hall. The results show that the large storing capacity of pool water promises the large amount of charged and discharged heat energy, and ensure the application of demand response of district heating in swimming hall. The application of demand response of district heating can increase the average pool water temperature from the normal setpoint of 26.5 ℃ to 27.3 ℃. In addition, demand-response district heating control for the swimming pool water and pool space air decreases the total district heat costs of the swimming hall by 1.1%. During the repayment periods of 7 and 15 years, the energy cost savings and maximum cost of profitable investment for the demand response control are between 10 000 € and 20 000 €


Mingya Zhu, Yiqun Pan, Zejun Wu, Jiantong Xie, Zhizhong Huang, Risto Kosonen. Building and Environment, 2021-02

ABSTRACT | Thermal comfort is one of the most important factors of indoor environment quality, affecting occupants’ well-being and work efficiency. With the advent of smart control technology, personalized and intelligent air conditioners have been promoted for occupant-centric intelligent air-conditioning control. Based on commonly used air-conditioning (AC), this paper quantitatively describes the method for occupant thermal preference adaptation, and proposes a rule-based classification method of occupant thermal preference recognition. With the quantitative description and classification of the occupant thermal preference, this paper proposes a multi-step input control method for an occupant-centric fan-coil system. This method provides an indoor thermal environment that fulfills the demands of different preferences and is easy to implement with existing air-conditioning control systems without additional sensors. To perform an application-oriented, closed-loop research of the proposed control method, two prediction models of occupant thermal preferences are developed based on an occupant behavior dataset and they could be used as the well initialized models for future online tunning by continually accumulated dataset. Moreover, aiming for a practical operation guide for conventional occupant-centric air-conditioning systems, this paper validates the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed multi-step input control method, integrated with occupant thermal preference recognition. This was done by using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) control experiments and Simulink simulations of an actual personal office room, equipped with a fan-coil unit (FCU) in Shanghai. The research results indicate that dynamic indoor air temperature response with different air-conditioning control modes can meet the control needs of different occupant thermal preference patterns.


Xiaolei Yuan, Xuetao Zhou, Yiqun Pan, Risto Kosonen, Hao Cai, Yang Gao, Yu Wang. Energy and Buildings, 2021-01

ABSTRACT | With the advent of big data era, data centers (DCs) related energy use accounts for approximately 3% of the global electric power consumption. As the augmentation of data-processing performance and thermal density in DCs, its energy use will undoubtedly continuously burst. Meanwhile, the potential safety hazards, caused by IT equipment local overheating, threaten the safe operation and restrict the further development of DCs. Thus, efficient cooling approaches should be applied in DCs to ensure its safe operation and optimize its thermal environment and cooling efficiency. Phase change cooling (PCC) technology is regarded as one of the effective and widely-used cooling methods, which have been applied in DCs for several years. In this paper, the up-to-date PCC technologies are reviewed and summarized, as well as the latest progress in DC cooling field. Four main PCC technologies are discussed in this paper, namely independent heat pipe cooling, integrated heat pipe cooling, two-phase immersion cooling, and cold storage systems. Finally, the shortcomings of the current researches on the PCC methods are summarized, while some suggestions for future researches are provided to promote the application of PCC technologies and achieve safe operations and energy savings in data centers.


Yan Lyu, Yiqun Pan, Tao Yang, Yuming Li, Zhizhong Huang, Risto Kosonen. Journal of Building Engineering, 2020-12

ABSTRACT | The calibration of building energy model is a vital part of the whole modelling process. To improve the efficiency of this work, an automation procedure has recently been introduced to the calibration process, but no generic approach has yet received the consensus of the whole community at present. The main reason is that a purely mathematics-based, automated calibration lacks physical explanation, which means that the calibrated model probably has a large error in certain single physical values despite a good overall agreement with the measurement data. In this study, the authors design a set of procedures to automatize the calibration process of building energy model based on schedule tuning and signed directed graph (SDG) method, which codifies human experience and logic and incorporates them into the modules of computational calibration to combine the advantages of traditional and automated approach. The specific operations of calibration process are introduced through a case study. In this case, a building energy model with relatively low accuracy is finally well calibrated. The CV(RMSE) (Coefficient of Variation of Root Mean Square Error) of the original model is 42.12% for power consumption and 25.50% for gas consumption; and for the calibrated model, the CV(RMSE) is 2.21% for power consumption and 3.15% for gas consumption. In addition, the same operations are also applied to another case for further verification. In this case, the final CV(RMSE) of power consumption is reduced to 2.19% from 19.25%. This significant result reveals the applicability and effectiveness of the automated process.


Xiaolei Yuan, Leo Lindroos, Juha Jokisalo, Risto Kosonen, Yiqun Pan. Energy and Buildings, 2020-11

ABSTRACT | Ice and swimming halls annually consume lots of energy and produce significant amount of potential waste heat in Finland. In this paper, utilization of four possible waste heat sources (ice refrigeration, dehumidification of air, Gray water and exhaust air) is studied by simulating combined energy system of ice and swimming halls locating in Helsinki. Four cases were simulated including the reference case, one case with waste heat recovery and two cases with both waste heat recovery and two different exhaust air heat pumps. In addition, thermal energy storage tanks are used to store the excess waste heat from the ice hall, while the high temperature exhaust air heat pumps can raise the waste heat temperatures for all heat demands. The results show that up to 99% of the purchased district heat can be replaced by the waste heat in the ice hall at the cost of only 9% purchased electricity increase. The combined utilization of excess heat transferred from the ice hall and the waste heat from the swimming hall can result in 72% reduction of purchased district heat and 37% electricity demand increase in the swimming hall. In the combined energy system of the studied ice and swimming hall, altogether 77% waste heat is utilized, bringing in 82% purchased district heat decrease and 25% electricity increase, while the total consumed energy reduced by 42%. In addition, the total annual energy cost savings reach 133 k€ (-29%), while the saving of the energy cost of the combined system can make up the maximum cost of the profitable investment. During three repayment periods (7, 10 and 15 years), the energy cost savings and maximum cost of profitable investment for the ice hall alone and combined ice and swimming halls are between 510 k€ and 970 k€ and between 700 k€ and 1 580 k€, respectively.


Shiyao Li, Yiqun Pan, Peng Xu, Nan Zhang. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2020-10

ABSTRACT | With the increasing penetration of distributed energy resources, integrating renewable generations into energy systems is a significant trend for smart and cleaner energy systems. To this end, advanced energy management has become of great importance. Conventional control of distributed energy resources relies on a central operator, which is responsible for the energy flow from producers to consumers and regulates money transactions. As this operator or the bulk grid is a monopoly, not every user can freely connect to a distributed energy resource, and distributed energy resource s can neither compete on price and services nor decide the price of the energy they want to sell to the users. To facilitate the utilization of locally-produced energy, and balance the supply and demand, a novel decentralized competitive energy system is proposed. Through this highly automated and fully decentralized multi-energy management approach, different parties on the peer-to-peer network can conduct money transaction at the machine level without interference of the central operator. An integrated multi-layer system architecture of the competitive energy system is elaborated, including system operation mechanism, device bidding strategy, and a hardware device Energy Router. The underlying protocol for money transactions among devices is IOTA, a peer-to-peer network supporting the data and value transfer for machine economy. The proposed energy network can facilitate autonomous negotiation and execution of transactions among machines without central operator’s intervention, and prevent monopolies, as well as promote easy admission of new distributed energy resources. Furthermore, a case study of a decentralized competitive heating system is presented to demonstrate the proposed architecture, and computer simulations were conducted to verify its rationality and potential value. The simulation results indicate that the peer-to-peer heating system outperforms conventional central heating systems in terms of both user cost and system e


Xiaolei Yuan, Yiqun Pan, Jianrong Yang, Weitong Wang, Zhizhong Huang. Building Simulation, 2020-03

ABSTRACT | Supervisory control can be used to optimize the HVAC system operation and achieve building energy conservation, while reinforcement learning (RL) is considered as a promising model-free supervisory control method. In this paper, we apply RL algorithm to the operation optimization of air-conditioning (AC) system and propose an innovative RL-based model-free control strategy combining rule-based and RL-based control algorithm as well as complete application process. We use a variable air volume (VAV) air-conditioning system for a single-storey office building as a case study to validate the optimization performance of the RL-based controller. We select control strategies with the rule-based control controller (RBC) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller respectively as the reference cases. The results show that, for the air supply of single zone, the RL controller performs the best in terms of both non-comfortable time and energy costs of AC system after one-year exploration learning. The total energy consumption of AC system reduced by 7.7% and 4.7%, respectively compared with RBC and PID strategies. For the air supply of multi-zone, the performance of RL controller begins to outperform the reference strategies after two-year exploration learning and two-year buffer stage. From the seventh year on, RL controller performs much better in terms of both non-comfortable time and operating costs of AC system, while the operating cost of AC system is reduced by 2.7% to 4.6% compared with the reference strategies. In addition, RL controller is more suitable for small-scale operation optimization problems.

ABSTRACT | 本文设计并实现了一种适用于个人空间的结合人员偏好的空调自学习控制方法。它是一种以人员为中心和面向应用的方法,能自主学习和适应不同人员的热偏好,提供不同人员所需的室内环境条件,且能很好地与现有的空调控制方式相结合,无需增加额外的传感器,利于推广和应用。本文构建了基于人员历史空调使用行为的人员偏好分类方法,建立了基于朴素贝叶斯分类器和神经网络模型的人员偏好预测模型来刻画和学习人员的温度偏好和降温/升温速率偏好。将人员偏好分类和预测模型集成到空调控制系统中,结合多阶跃输入的空调控制方法,进而满足不同人员偏好的控制需求。在实际运行中,随着人员空调使用行为反馈和模型更新,人员偏好分类和预测模型将持续优化学习结果并且实现更优的控制效果。本文通过模拟和实验的方式验证了结合人员偏好的空调自学习控制方法的有效性和准确性。


Xiaolei Yuan, Xinjie Xu, Jinxiang Liu, Yiqun Pan, Risto Kosonen, Yang Gao. Building and Environment, 2020-01

ABSTRACT | This paper introduced and analyzed a new concept where an under-floor air supply (UFAD) system with cold aisle containment (CAC) is replaced by a new in-rack UFAD system called an in-rack cold aisle (IR-CA). The IR-CA system is analyzed using CFD simulation, and on-site measurement was carried out to validate the feasibility and reliability of simulation models. The study is divided into eight cases with seven different dimensions for the rack air inlet (2.2 m × 0.6 m, 0.2 m × 0.6 m, 0.3 m × 0.6 m, 0.4 m × 0.6 m, 0.5 m × 0.6 m, 0.6 m × 0.6 m, and 0.7 m × 0.6 m), while an additional partition plane is placed in Case 8 with a 0.6 m × 0.6-m in-rack air inlet. The thermal distribution is compared and analyzed in the eight cases, while cooling efficiency and energy saving is compared between the original and optimal cases. The results showed that the optimal thermal distribution is achieved in Case 8 with a 0.6 m × 0.6 m IR-CA and partition plane, while the thermal distribution in Case 8 with SAT of 23 °C is still much better than that in the original DC. The application of a 0.6 m × 0.6 m IR-CA and partition plane can save approximately 98 kW h/day in electricity consumption in the studied DC. A new evaluation index named the MS index is proposed to evaluate the optimization effects of the optimization model based on the original model.


Jiantong Xie, Yiqun Pan, Wenqi Jia, Lei Xu, Zhizhong Huang. Applied Energy, 2019-12

ABSTRACT | Occupant behavior (OB) has been recognized as a significant factor that influences the energy consumed by the occupants of a building. For buildings equipped with distributed air-conditioning systems, the stochastic influences of occupants are particularly salient. This paper presents a method for simulating the occupancy and air-conditioning usage; it integrates the OB model with a modified distributed air-conditioning system in EnergyPlus (E+). First, we develop a monitoring system that uses motion sensors and thermostats to measure the occupancy and air-conditioning usage in a hotel building. Then, we use the Markov Chain method and a Monte-Carlo stochastic model to simulate the occupancy and set-point adjustment, respectively. We modify the distributed air-conditioning system in E+ to reflect the intermittent operation and temperature fluctuation characteristics of split-type air conditioners (ACs). Finally, to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, we conduct a simulation of a hotel building that integrates the OB model with the modified distributed air-conditioning system. The results show that the method can incorporate the features of both the OB and the split-type ACs. Significant differences (7.86%) can be observed in the energy consumption results between the original and modified models. The modified E+ model can be used to perform a more accurate simulation for split-type ACs with a shorter time step, integrating OB at the scale of an entire building.


Qiujian Wang, Yiqun Pan, Yangyang Fu, Zhizhong Huang, Wangda Zuo, Peng Xu. Building Simulation, 2019-04

ABSTRACT | Two main tasks of commissioning an air-side HVAC system are to verify the fan capacity and to balance the air loop. Simulations can be of assistance to these two tasks. However, the models used in the simulation will inevitably have some uncertainties, especially for the models of the pressure loss components. This paper proposes to use uncertainty analysis to obtain the adjustment instructions for tuning the dampers and the fan pressure value for sizing the fan on a virtual testbed implemented in Modelica. An air-side system with eight terminals, ten dampers and seven junctions is taken as the use case. 24 correction factors for the pressure loss coefficients (PLC) (10 for the dampers, 14 for the junctions) are taken as the inputs for the uncertainty analysis. 1000 samples of the correction factors are generated by using the Latin Hypercube Sampling method. The proportional balancing method is adopted to determine the positions of the damper so that the designed terminal flow rates could be met. The fan pressure value is also determined accordingly. The distributions of the dampers’ positions and fan pressure can be used to guide the balancing work and fan sizing in practice. In addition, the sensitivity analysis reveals that the position adjustments and fan pressure results are more sensitive to the uncertainties of the dampers’ PLCs. When the uncertainty level of the dampers’ PLC is reduced from ±40% to ±10%, the ranges of the damper’s positions will be significantly narrowed down to less than 15%, and the 95th percentiles of the fan pressure will drop from 116Pa to 38Pa, which shows the practicality and benefit of the proposed method.

潘媛. 硕士论文, 2019-03

ABSTRACT | 多样性的人员用能行为是决定建筑能耗的关键因素,科学评估人行为对系统性能、建筑用能的影响,对于能耗模拟技术在实际工程中的应用具有重要意义。由于人员空调使用行为具有随机性、差异性等特点,造成行为的定量化描述较为困难,尤其是多人办公室空间中,空调使用行为还受到不同角色人员之间的交互影响,目前尚未有合适的模型进行准确描述。针对能耗模拟中对多人行为刻画不够准确、未考虑办公建筑人员之间交互影响的用能行为等问题,本文基于广泛调研和案例测试,提取典型空调行为模式,建立办公空间中空调使用行为的多人模型,在 DeST 软件中实现对多人动作及空调运行状态的模拟计算,从而反映行为的个体差异性与群体统一性的真实、复杂特征,同时满足能耗模拟中对人行为影响的准确分析和科学评估。

ABSTRACT | Heat rejection from air conditioners not only contribute the outside environment surrounding the buildings but also increase the cooling loads. Based on it, A novel methodology to fully-scale amend the weather data in summer season is proposed, as a means of quantizing the results. Two software, EnergyPlus and Fluent were employed in this study. Three variables were inputted into Fluent to get the relationship between the difference in outside temperature and the dry-bulb temperature, heat rejection and wind speed, thus can generate the regression equation. Based on the equation, we can get the effect of heat rejection on the environment surrounding the buildings and cooling load. The results showed that the heat rejection not only raise the outside temperature, but also increase the cooling loads.

ABSTRACT | This study proposes a hybrid space filling design method combining the high-dimensional clustering method with the existing statistical sampling method to design the variables and cases for a BPD of office buildings. With this method, we can build a BPD only including about 10,000 cases but having the capability of representing the high-dimensional space constructed by 16 building energy variables at 3-6 levels. Relative to common statistical sampling method, the proposed method has higher sampling efficiency, and can help researches having many targeted variables to decrease the calculation cost and the following data mining complexity. Based on the proposed cases design, we use jEPlus to conduct batch case calculation. The variables of massive cases and the corresponding outputs (building energy consumption) constituted the target BPD, that will contribute to effective building performance benchmark and assessment. In addition, the BPD can be used as the data basis of model development for office building energy prediction.

Yuan Pan, Yiqun Pan, Jiantong Xie, Zhizhong Huang. Asim 2018, 2018-12

ABSTRACT | Due to the diversity and randomness of heating and cooling usage behavior in buildings, occupant behavior can lead to great variation in building energy consumption. In the study of occupant behavior modeling, the characteristic parameters obtained from limited case studies are difficult to fully reflect the diversity and distribution characters of occupant behavior of large population. In practical engineering applications including energy efficiency design, standard formulation and technology evaluation, the typical behavior patterns based on large-scale crowd statistics are also required as the input of the modeling to ensure that the energy simulation results are consistent with the actual building energy use. This paper conducted a large-scale questionnaire survey about the preferences and habits of occupant behavior in China. Based on the behavior characteristics, the heating and cooling switching behaviors and temperature set point adjusting behavior were classified as several typical behavior patterns using cluster analysis methods. The conditional probability functions and characteristic parameters for the typical behavior pattern were also obtained to provide input for the occupant behavior model.

Qiujian Wang, Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang, Wangda Zuo, Peng Xu. Asim 2018, 2018-12

ABSTRACT | PID controllers are still prevailing in building environmental control due to its easy deployment and acceptable performance. However, it is common in practice that the PID controllers are not tuned properly because of the limited time for commissioning and the inexperienced practitioners. This study proposes a simulation-based method to provide instructions for on-site tuning. Due to the uncertainties within both the physical problem and modelling process, the uncertainty analysis method is adopted. The transfer functions of local temperatures are identified and then used to calculate the PID parameters of the controller. A simple room with variable supply airflow rate is selected as a use case, in which seven types of uncertainty factors are addressed. The entire simulation process is conducted with CFD and Modelica modelling sequentially. From the histograms of the PID parameters, the values with the highest probabilities can be identified with the control performance verified to be acceptable.

ABSTRACT | 本文着眼于对全楼尺度的人员在室率以及人员空调使用行为进行研究,并不研究单个个体的行为及行为驱动因素。人员在室率的数据通过动作探测进行获取,将记录数据处理为全楼逐时在室率并进行分析。人员对空调的调节行为监测数据通过室内温控器进行记录并上传,通过对数据的处理后得到人员对设定温度及室内温度选择的分布规律。 在对人行为进行模拟时,为体现出人行为的随机性和多样性,本文采用马尔可夫链及蒙特卡洛随机模拟的方法,对全楼各个房间的人员在室率以及空调调节行为进行模拟。通过生成各个房间人员在室率以及空调设定温度的时间表,对人行为进行模拟。采用此种方法得到的人行为模型,既能够体现出人行为的不确定性,也能在全楼尺度上服从统计规律。 由于 EnergyPlus 原有空调模块在模拟时无法反映出分体机运行时的启停特性和室内温度波动的特点,本文对 EnergyPlus 程序源码进行修改,使其在对分体机模型进行模拟时能够反映其运行特征。本文使用改进后的分体机模型对单个房间模型进行模拟,结果显示改进后的模型能够体现出分体空调运行时的启停以及室温波动。此外,结合人行为模型,本文对一酒店模型进行模拟,结果显示改进后的模型在长时间尺度上能耗计算结果与原有模型之间的差值大于模拟误差,因此可以认为此种改进是有必要和有价值的。 本文的研究成果能够实现对全楼尺度的人行为在室情况以及空调使用行为的模拟,同时也能够对分散式空调能耗情况进行更加准确的刻画。

ABSTRACT | 基于强化学习的控制是一种数据驱动的控制方法,具有免模型、目标导向的特点。本文提出将强化学习算法应用在空调系统运行优化中。 首先本文对目前的强化学习算法进行梳理,选择拟合 Q 迭代算法作为主要应用算法。针对强化学习算法特点与空调系统运行优化的实际需求,将强化学习控制器在空调系统运行优化中的应用过程分为准备阶段、初始阶段、探索阶段和运行阶段,并描述了各阶段完整的算法流程。之后,本文通过具体案例对强化学习控制器的控制效果进行验证分析,应用案例包括:(1)强化学习控制器在变风量空调系统中的应用;(2)强化学习控制器在空气源热泵联合电辅热系统中的应用;(3)强化学习控制器在严寒地区太阳能-地源热泵系统中的应用。仿真结果显示,本文提出的基于强化学习算法的空调系统运行方法在满足建筑负荷需求的同时,可以有效降低建筑运行费用。与模型预测控制方法相比,强化学习控制器响应速度更快。此外,该方法具备对先验知识依赖程度低、自适应性强的特点,具备一定的实用性,其应用有助于实现空调系统精细化运行的目标。 最后,本文基于 Python 语言开发了应用工具,用户可以通过编写配置文件和简单脚本的方式使用工具构建用于空调系统的强化学习控制器。


Qiujian Wang, Yiqun Pan, Mingya Zhu, Zhizhong Huang, Peng Xu. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 2018-01

ABSTRACT | Most of the local pressure loss coefficient (LPLC) models for duct fittings used in heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) air-side system transient simulations are simplified. The LPLCs are defined as having a constant value at the rated flow condition or as having a polynomial function of the flow ratio (or velocity ratio). To determine the influence of these simplifications, this study used a diverging tee junction as an example. First, we performed CFD calculations to generate a new LPLC dataset and trained a data-driven model using feature weighted support vector regression (FWSVR) combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO-FWSVR). Finally, we compared this new LPLC model with the two traditional models at the level of both individual junction and air-side system. The results show that the accuracy of the new model is greatly improved and the LPLC model can have a significant impact on the system operation condition.


Qiujian Wang, Yiqun Pan, Mingya Zhu, Zhizhong Huang, Wei Tian, Wangda Zuo, Xu Han, Peng Xu. Building and Environment, 2017-12

ABSTRACT | Inhomogeneous airflow distribution is common in air-conditioned rooms, especially the large open spaces. To evaluate the thermal comfort of such space, or the control performance of the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems in an efficient way, one will need a fast prediction method to simulate the airflow and temperature distribution. This paper proposes a discrete state-space method, called state-space fluid dynamics (SFD), for the fast indoor airflow simulation. To handle time-varying velocity and temperature field, SFD converts all the governing equations of fluid dynamics into the form of a state-space model. Four typical cases are selected to evaluate both the accuracy and speed of SFD, compared with fast fluid dynamics (FFD), which is another fast airflow simulation program. Results show that SFD is capable of achieving faster-than-real-time airflow simulation with an accuracy similar to FFD. The computing time of SFD is longer than FFD when the time step size is the same. However, SFD can generally produce better results than FFD when the time step size is larger, which allows SFD run faster than FFD.

吕岩, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. CCHVAC 2017, 2017-12

ABSTRACT | 目前,对于公共建筑的集中式空调系统来说,其规模一般是比较大的。这也就意味着,储存在其水系统的冷冻水之中的冷量是相当可观的,具有利用的价值。在系统优化运行控制的层面来看,对该部分冷量的利用,相当于对空调水系统的运行进行优化的过程中,考察其自身的蓄能特性。在考虑到蓄能作用基础上的空调水系统优化算法,可以实现对应于峰谷电价的错峰填谷、提前关闭系统以利用剩余冷量等更广泛的优化排期功能。 本研究以某公共建筑 BA 系统所收集得到的空调水系统运行数据为基础,总结了部分适用于实际项目的空调水系统半物理模型的建立方法,并采用实测数据对系统模型进行了验算,证明了该空调水系统模型的有效性,并为进一步的工作提出了设想。

王尉同, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. CCHVAC 2017, 2017-12

ABSTRACT | 空调系统运行优化是建筑节能的重要组成部分。本文将强化学习算法应用在空调系统运行优化中。首先建立空调系统运行优化任务的马尔科夫决策过程模型,接下来确立规则对探索空间进行进一步缩减,使探索过程尽可能满足系统设备运行和被控区域舒适度的约束,最后应用 Q-Learning 算法探索学习不断改进控制策略。通过仿真案例对算法进行了测试。采用动态仿真软件 TRNSYS 和 MATLAB 进行联合仿真,对被控区域送风量进行了优化,仿真结果显示,与基于固定规则的控制策略和 PID 控制相比,本文提出的基于强化学习的控制方法可以在小幅提升被控区域舒适度的同时可将运行费用分别降低超过 7%和4.5%。

ABSTRACT | 随着人民生活水平的日益提高,我国酒店业市场呈现显著增长趋势。从国家能源安全和节能减排工作的角度出发,酒店类建筑面积的日益增长所带来的能源消耗和碳排放问题日益凸显;从酒店提高自身效益的角度出发,设备节能则是扩大利润的有效途径。本文根据酒店客房实测数据,确定了酒店客房人员在室率时间表;根据调研数据,建立了不同气候区不同客房尺寸的典型客房模型,并开发软件根据用户选择的节能措施对模型进行修改,模拟计算得到客房负荷;同时,建立了采暖空调设备侧模型用于计算能耗。通过基准模型和设计模型的能耗比较,可以得到选用的节能措施的节能效果。

杨陶, 潘毅群, 谢建彤, 黄治钟. CCHVAC 2017, 2017-12

ABSTRACT | 由于建筑能耗模型与实际数据间存在信息差,其模拟结果和实测值之间常出现误差, 且此误差有时甚至超过 100%。误差的存在大大降低了模型的可信度,也削弱了其在建筑运行评价中发挥的作用。因此在建模的过程中,需要对模型进行校验,以降低模拟值和实际值之间的误差,增加可靠性。本文提出一种基于符号有向图的建筑能耗模型校验方法,将人工校验的知识和逻辑模块化,为人工智能大趋势下结合人工和自动校验双边优势的途径发展提供一种可能。


Lei Xu, Yiqun Pan, Meishun Lin, Zhizhong Huang. Sustainable Cities and Society, 2017-11

ABSTRACT | Load patterns have a significant effect on the configuration of an energy system. With a smoother load profile, the initial investment cost and operation and maintenance costs can be reduced. Adjustments in the area ratio of different types of buildings during early planning stage can be useful in leveling the loads. However, there are few studies till date on the guidelines for making such adjustments. This paper proposes a method to evaluate the performance of load leveling. Before evaluation, the load profile is obtained using a method that combines simulation and scenario analysis. Optimization of energy configuration for a typical case is conducted before and after load leveling adjustment to demonstrate the benefits of load leveling.


Lei Xu, Yiqun Pan, Meishun Lin, Zhizhong Huang. ISHVAC 2017, 2017-10

ABSTRACT | As an important part of green eco-community planning, reasonable community energy planning requires accurate community load prediction. Hence, this paper focuses on the method of community load prediction. Given that community energy planning has great uncertainty and forward-looking requirements, this paper proposes an integrated method of buildings load prediction, which combines building simulation and scenario analysis. We apply scenario analysis to avoid simply adding up the loads which leads to overestimation. Establishment and calibration of the prototypical models are carried out. Using the proposed method, a case study is conducted to predict the cooling and heating load of a CBD in Shanghai. The results show that the energy system operates at relatively low efficiency and adjustment of area ratio of different building types is suggested.


Yan Lyu, Yiqun Pan, Cuisong Qu. ISHVAC 2017, 2017-10

ABSTRACT | In architectural design, solar energy building has become the focus of many architects. In order to achieve the expected energy efficiency, the appropriate energy system should be configured during the design phase in accordance with the idea of building integrated design. In this paper, a house was designed for Solar Decathlon competition 2017 in China. In order to reach the target of energy balance, the design team employed BIPVs, solar heating system and several energy efficient technologies. By the use of simulation-based method, the energy system of the house was designed and optimized, so that the house can meet the requirements of “passive building” completely with reasonable building design and energy system configuration. The optimal design method described in this paper can provide effective solution and practical reference for the design of solar energy buildings.

ABSTRACT | This paper aims to study the impact of community form on building energy consumption of commercial district. Building typology and FAR (floor area ratio) are two important morphology factors in district energy efficiency design. To explore how they influence building energy consumption, two major questions are concerning: (1) how a given FAR generates alternative building typologies that have different effects on energy consumption? (2) how increasing FAR affects building energy consumption generally? In this paper, a group of representative hypothetical models are built based on the form of actual office buildings in Shanghai. The energy consumption of three building typologies (the pavilion, the slab and the courtyard) are examined using DesignBuilder and EnergyPlus. The results suggest that, with the same building density, office building energy consumptions have a positive relationship with FAR, and different building typologies can lead to variations in energy consumption as well as energy-FAR relationship


Tao Yang, Yiqun Pan, Yikun Yang, Meishun Lin, Meishun Lin, Bingyue Qin, Peng Xu, Zhizhong Huang. Energy, 2017-06

ABSTRACT | Global climate change and energy crises have increasingly impeded the sustainable development of society and economy. With an accelerated process of urbanization and improved standards of living, China has become the largest carbon emitter in the world and therefore has great responsibility and great potential to mitigate global carbon emissions. Accordingly, as the largest source of emissions in China, Chinese buildings should also decrease carbon emissions towards this goal. However, until now, there has been no clear and comprehensive understanding of the carbon emissions in this sector. To fill this gap, we survey the current and future situation. Firstly, we estimate the controlled ceiling of building carbon emission, splitting from the overall reduction goal in China. Then we develop a comprehensive carbon-calculating methodology, the China Building Carbon Emissions Model, using a bottom-up approach, and assess the building carbon emissions based on official statistics. On the basis of that, scenario analysis is used to predict the future trend of carbon emissions in China's building sector. According to our analysis, it is critical to simultaneously control floor space, energy consumption and energy structure to limit the growth of carbon emissions in the building sector. Finally, some relative policy suggestions are also discussed.


Lei Xu, Yiqun Pan, Yuan Yao, Dandan Cai, Zhizhong Huang, Norber Linder. Energy and Buildings, 2017-03

ABSTRACT | Lighting represents a major part of building energy use. Therefore, energy savings in a lighting system can be very important for reducing building energy consumption. This article presents a study of the energy performance of various lighting systems and control strategies applied in open-plan offices. All of the experiments were carried out on a test bed. The energy saving potential of various lighting control strategies is simulated and analyzed, and a combined lighting control strategy of background dimming lighting plus task lighting is studied on the test bed. Moreover, visual comfort is investigated to determine the optimal background dimming lighting illumination and energy performance of the combined lighting system. Savings from general lighting control can reach 50% or higher. With task lighting control combined with dimmable general lighting, the energy savings rate can be increased to 59%.

侯丹琳, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 建筑节能, 2017-03

ABSTRACT | 暖通空调系统运行效果的好坏依赖于控制系统。传统的控制过程中PID参数需要专业人员根据工程经验进行设定, 往往控制精度不够, 鲁棒性差。而基于系统传递函数的PID控制虽然表现性能良好, 但实际使用过程中往往由于不能得到准确的传递函数而受到限制。采用粒子群优化算法对所研究的暖通空调对象进行模型参数的辨识。在辨识过程中, 首先将空调系统中涉及的某个被控对象的传递函数设置为二阶滞后模型, 然后采用粒子群优化算法对模型参数进行在线辨识。通过将目标函数设置为最小化模型输出与系统实际输出的偏差值而得到最优参数解, 从而得到被控对象的传递函数。通过2个算例说明该方法过程简单、结果准确, 且具有一定的鲁棒性。

ABSTRACT | 本文提出一种基于符号有向图的建筑能耗模型校验方法,将人工校验的知识和逻辑模块化,为结合人工和自动校验双边优势的途径发展提供一种可能。首先,本文通过细致研究建筑能耗相关各物理参数之间、参数和能耗之间因果关系的理论基础,建立从围护结构、室内人员等负荷侧到冷热源、输配系统等供应侧的建筑能耗符号有向图,并依据模型校验目的对图中所涉及参数进行分类。随后,建筑能耗模型校验工作分为两个阶段。第一阶段是对建筑运行的时间表进行校验,本文提出“典型日时间表校验法”,利用短期测量数据,对室内照明系统、设备系统、人员在室、空调系统等建立实际逐月时间表;第二阶段是对调整类参数进行校验,本文提出“分步分部参数校验法”,将模拟结果和实测数据进行比较,依据不同部件的误差结果,先基于符号有向图的向前推理机制按图索骥搜索出可能的误差参数集,然后利用由符号有向图向后推理机制事先建立的函数逻辑关系,推荐每个待调整输入参数的调整值。整个调整过程基于一定的规则顺序进行。最后,本文借助计算机虚拟建筑模型和实际建筑数据对文章所提出的建筑能耗模型校验方法进行应用性展示和有效性验证。

侯丹琳. 硕士论文, 2017-03

ABSTRACT | 本文以实现PID控制器参数自整定为研究目的,首先提出了一种基于PSO算法的在线过程辨识方法。通过目标函数的合理选取,这种方法可以简单、快速地辨识出系统的传递函数,准确度较高,且具有鲁棒性。然后,在得到传递函数的基础上,运用SIMC-PID参数整定方法,形成PID参数自整定算法。为了确保该方法可以应用于实际控制系统,本文给出了稳定状态的判断方法,并且提出了“两步走”的采样周期方式,即先以1s/次的速度对系统数据进行采样,并进行系统是否进入稳定状态的判断;然后再从开始时刻至系统被认为稳定时段间的数据中抽取一定百分比的数据送入后续过程辨识算法中。这种方式在确保辨识结果 准确性的同时,降低了计算负担。最后,为了验证这种PID自整定方法的实际使用可行性和整定准确性,作者将其开发成为自整定应用程序并搭建了一个“水模拟-VAV”空调系统实验台。通过对变频水泵和电动调节阀的PID控制器参数整定效果来看,本文所开发的基于在线过程辨识的PID参数自整定程序具有实际可操作性,并且整定效果良好。

ABSTRACT | 本文采用预先模拟数据库法建立适用于夏热冬冷地区办公建筑的节能改造措施与建筑能耗数据库,并基于数据库应用数据驱动法建立节能改造快速估算模型。首先利用eQUEST软件建立典型办公建筑模型,提出“H/S——建筑形状系数”概念,与总建筑面积一起作为代表建筑形状和尺寸的参数,模拟分析建筑形状/尺寸对单位面积建筑能耗(EUI, Energy Use Intensity)的影响,并利用多元回归分析法得到“建筑形状/尺寸—EUI”关系。此关系式用于修正采用典型模型计算实际建筑基准能耗时因建筑形状/尺寸不同而引起的能耗偏差。 采用典型办公建筑模型,模拟计算夏热冬冷地区常用的13种节能改造措施的节能量,包括3 种围护结构改造措施、2种照明系统改造措施、7种空调水系统改造措施、1种空调风系统改造措施。同时考虑各个节能措施之间的相互影响,采用回归分析方法得到 “单项节能措施参数—能耗”和“多项节能措施参数—能耗”拟合算法,用于快速估算单项措施及多项措施的建筑能耗与综合节能量。 采用净现值和动态投资回收期,进行节能改造项目经济效益估算。结合节能量算法,开发节能量及经济效益快速估算工具。利用上海地区实际改造建筑数据验证估算方法的准确性。该工具适用于节能改造方案初步筛选阶段,并为业主等无建模经验人员分析节能改造提供可操作性。本文提出的节能量快速估算方法弥补了国内学者对此研究的空缺,为建立适用于我国气候区及用能形式的节能改造快速估算工具提供可靠的技术支持。

秦冰月, 潘毅群, 于利丽, 黄治钟. 建筑节能, 2017-02

ABSTRACT | 以上海地区的气象参数作为夏热冬冷气候区的典型代表, 提出"H/S——建筑形状系数"并作为建筑形状分类指标, 对办公建筑分类建模, 采用能耗模拟软件eQUEST进行能耗估算,并用SPSS软件做逐步线性回归分析, 探究建筑总面积、建筑形态与单位建筑面积年能耗(EUI)之间的数学关系。研究表明: 1单位建筑面积能耗(EUI)随建筑总面积的增加而减少。2总面积越小的单体建筑, 面积变化对能耗影响越大。3越"瘦高"的建筑, 建筑能耗越大。

Danlin Hou, Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang. Asim 2016, 2016-11

ABSTRACT | The operation effect of industrial process is largely determined by the automatic control system. In the conventional control process, the Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID) parameters need to be set according to the engineering experience. Not only is the control precision not enough, but also the robustness is poor. The performance of PID control based on the system transfer function is relatively good. However, it is usually limited by the accuracy of transfer functions. In this paper, a method based on PSO is studied for the identification of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. By simplification the transfer function as a second order plus dead time model, using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm optimizes the parameters of the model to obtain the minimum differentiation between the outputs of the system and the model. Two examples are given to show this method is simple and results are accurate.

ABSTRACT | Most of the local pressure loss coefficient (LPLC) models for duct fittings used in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) air-side system transient simulations are the simplified ones. The LPLCs are defined as a constant value at the rated flow condition or as a polynomial function of flow ratio (or velocity ratio). However, literature reviews give the evidence that the LPLC is affected by the inlet Reynold number, which makes the usability of the two simplified LPLC models (Constant-value model, Polynomial function model) questionable. To figure out the influence of these simplifications, this study took the diverging tee junction as an example. First we used CFD calculations to generate a new LPLC dataset and trained a data-driven model from it with the method of feature weighted support vector regression combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO-FWSVR). Then we compared this new model with the polynomial model in the LPLC calculation on the test set. The mean absolute percentage error of new model is less than 3%, which is much better than polynomial model. At last we applied all the three LPLC models in a simple air-side system simulation to analyze the impact of LPLC simplifications on the simulated operation condition of a system. It is found that the constant-value LPLC model can cause a large error of the simulation results of system flow conditions. It is too simplified to reflect the dynamic behavior of air distribution system correctly. And the result from polynomial model is comparatively closer to PSO-FWSVR model, but the bias may be unacceptable when simulating a system with high control precision.

Yiqun Pan, Mingya Zhu, Zhizhong Huang. Asim 2016, 2016-11

ABSTRACT | Data-driven Models (DMs) play a significant role in the building energy prediction researches. The lack of targeted summary on DMs usually makes researchers and scientists engaged in promoting building energy performance confused of the selection and application of DMs. This paper primarily summarizes the application of DMs in the field of building energy prediction. According to the methodology of DMs development, the Regression Model (RM), Time Series Model (TSM), Genetic algorithm (GA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN)/ Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Calibrated Simulation (CS) are classified into DMs. From the view point of the model application, the function of the prediction load/energy achieved by a specific DM depends on its time scale. Under different building management goals for different levels of decision-makers and researchers, the model selection, the data requirements and applicable objects are all distinct accordingly. Different from previous reviews that mainly pay attention to the methodology and the performance comparison of building energy prediction models, we review the DMs’ model development and application in the multi-timescale building energy prediction, including hourly/daily, monthly, annual and mutidecadal timescale. This paper will contribute to reasonable selection of existing DMs on the basis of the building operation stage, the available monitored data quality, the building energy prediction requirement, and the building energy efficiency goal for an object building or a building type.


Tao Yang, Yiqun Pan, Jiachen Mao, Yonglong Wang, Zhizhong Huang. Applied Energy, 2016-10

ABSTRACT | Due to the discrepancy between simulated energy consumption and measured data, it is essential to calibrate building energy models to improve its fidelity in evaluating the performance of retrofitting. Currently, most calibration methods are conducted manually to minimize this discrepancy, heavily relying on the knowledge and experience of analysts to discover a reasonable set of parameters. Because of the myriad independent and interdependent variables involved, the reliability of the entire simulation is largely undermined. In the presented paper, we propose a complete and fluent optimization automated calibration flow by introducing the mathematical optimization method (Particle Swarm Optimization is adopted) into the building energy model calibration process, thus leveraging the advantages of the efficiency and flexibility of the automated computer procedure. This approach is also characterized by its inclusivity, for it is compatible with other advanced manual methods and able to largely assist the experts in improving the efficiency of tuning relative input parameters. Moreover, a case in Shanghai is presented to verify the validity of the proposed method. After calibration, the simulation model demonstrates a satisfactory predicting accuracy. The calculated electricity consumption from the HVAC, lighting and equipment matches the actual monitored data with 11.6%, 7.3% and 7.2% CV (RMSE), respectively, and the total electricity consumption is within 6.1%.


Jiachen Mao, Yiqun Pan, Yangyang Fu. Energy and Buildings, 2016-06

ABSTRACT | Given the growing concern about building energy efficiency and the difficulty in applying complex simulation tools during retrofit practices, the need for easily and quickly estimating the building energy performance becomes pressing. As a pilot test, this study proposes a systematic method to develop a model, which can immediately assess the annual electricity consumption for office buildings with fan coil system in Shanghai. First, a base-case building model is established by EnergyPlus to create a pool of candidate inputs using orthogonal experiment design. Then, analysis of variance is used to identify a total of 10 key building design parameters, which are selected as the input variables in the support vector regression (SVR) model based on a well-structured database. The performance of SVR is optimized using genetic algorithm (GA) based on radial basis function kernel. Finally, two real office buildings in Shanghai with reliable measured data serve to evaluate the developed hybrid model. The resulting differences between the predicted and measured values are generally within 10%. It is expected that the developed database and model can be used to assess the likely energy savings/penalty related with certain parameter changes to some extent during the retrofit process for office buildings.

ABSTRACT | 良好的住宅小区风热环境可以加快室外热量的消散和污染物排放, 保证居民的健康和舒适。影响小区风热环境的因素主要有小区布局、建筑形态及下垫面形式等。以青岛市一个实际小区为案例采用数值模拟的方法分析小区冬夏季行人高度的风场及温度场分布, 评估设计的合理性, 找出小区内风热环境不满足要求的区域。通过调整小区内建筑的布局和改变下垫面形式等方法改进小区的设计, 并对改进后的方案进行模拟计算。通过模拟结果的对比发现: 1合理布局建筑位置, 在小区内形成风道可有效改善风环境; 2改变下垫面热物性, 提高地面材料的反射率, 能够降低地面附近的空气温度和体感温度, 改善小区热环境。

林美顺, 潘毅群. 建筑节能, 2016-03

ABSTRACT | 区域建筑群负荷预测是能源站系统容量配置的基础, 在研究区域建筑负荷预测方法的基础上, 运用软件模拟与情景分析相结合的方法, 预测上海某商务区能源站供能区域建筑群空调冷、热负荷, 进而预测能源站的空调负荷, 并对入住率进行情景分析, 计算不同入住率下的系统容量, 为能源站系统容量配置提供基础数据。

ABSTRACT | 考虑到城区规划阶段的不确定性较大且要求具备一定的前瞻性,本论文提出了基于软件模拟和数据挖掘的综合区域建筑群负荷预测方法及流程,并着重阐述了典型建筑模型的建立依据及校验标准。采用本文提出的区域建筑群负荷预测方法,建立包含不同建筑情景的各类典型建筑负荷指标数据库,设计和开发区域建筑群负荷预测简易计算工具,并运用该工具预测了上海地区某商务区建筑群的空调冷、热负荷。 在区域规划初期,可以通过调整区域建筑配比优化建筑群的负荷特性,但目前缺少关于调整依据的研究。本文提出用负荷曲线的标准差来衡量负荷的平准化程度,标准差越小,负荷平准化越好,反之,标准差越大,负荷平准化程度越差。利用区域建筑群负荷预测工具,计算得到不同建筑配比的区域建筑群负荷。然后采用模糊聚类方法对基于负荷平准化的建筑类型配比进行了分析研究。 区域建筑的能源优化配置需依据准确的区域建筑群负荷预测结果进行。本文利用区域建筑能源配置优化数学模型对区域建筑能源系统进行优化配置,并分析了负荷平准化对区域建筑能源配置的影响。研究结果表明,规划阶段通过建筑配比调整使负荷平准化,不仅能够优化区域能源配置,提高经济性,还可以实现需求侧节能。

ABSTRACT | 大气边界层内,随着高度的增加,自然风速显著增大,其对建筑表面的风压作用也随之增强。超高层建筑(Megatall Building)通风口处上百帕的风压会直接影响通风系统的有效工作,出现进排风量不稳定、风机颤振甚至无法工作等状况,最终将对室内空气品质和舒适性产生不利影响。本文基于这一工程问题,采用CFD数值模拟方法研究室外风压对超高层建筑通风系统的影响,并从建筑结构形式和风机选型与控制策略等方面研究增强通风系统工作稳定性的对策。 本文首先建立RNG-k和 Realizable-k湍流模型的超高层建筑表面风压数值模拟模型并与风洞实验对比,验证了RNG-k湍流模型的准确性。采用经过验证的模型分别研究方形、多边形、类三角形三种形状的超高层建筑的表面风压分布规律,并给出通风设计条件下基本风速的选取方法和表面风压的设计值。然后对超高层建筑的通风小室和通风环廊内的压力分布进行模拟分析,评估其对缓解室外风压影响的效果。最后针对超高层建筑通风系统的特点,提出考虑室外风压影响下的新排风机选型方法以及通风系统控制策略,并建立Simulink仿真模型对控制策略进行仿真验证。


Mingya Zhu, Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang, Peng Xu. Energy and Buildings, 2016-02

ABSTRACT | Climate change would affect the building energy demand in the future. Building simulation is a feasible way to quantitatively evaluate this impact. Since the detailed weather is dispensable for the building simulation, it is important to predict the weather data for the future. Given that the uncertainties and limitations of GCMs on regional-scale weather prediction, an alternative method of future weather data generation for future building energy demand simulation is proposed in this paper. Based on the long-/short-term climate periodicity analysis, a Dual-Periodic Time Series Model is established to predict the future monthly temperatures in Shanghai. From the fitting results and the preliminary assessment analysis, it is observed that the alternative forecasting method and the corresponding Dual-Periodic TSM has better capability of characterizing and predicting performance for both recent and future temperature trends in Shanghai than GCM under RCP4.5. In this case, this method can be used as an alternative and supplementary way to the widely used GCM. With consideration of three composite uncertainty scenarios, we convert the predicted monthly temperatures into hourly TMYs by using Morphing method. Using the future TMYs as the weather input of prototypical building models of Shanghai, we can see that the simulated building energy demand presents fluctuant trends in the future periods, different from the continuous uptrends of that using IPCC RCP4.5.

林美顺, 潘毅群, 朱明亚, 王秋涧. 建设科技, 2016-01

ABSTRACT | 现行的建筑节能设计标准对体形系数作强制性规定, 但标准研究制定体形系数相关规定时对建筑使用模式的假设与实际情况之间有很大差别, 而且标准中关于体形系数的强制性规定限制了实际中建筑师对建筑体形的设计。本文针对建筑使用模式和建筑围护结构热工性能对建筑能耗的影响, 分析了建筑体形系数与建筑能耗的关系, 认为在严寒、寒冷地区, 为降低采暖能耗, 对建筑体形系数限值是合理的, 但出于降低建筑总能耗的目, 仍需谨慎设计建筑体形; 但对于南方地区, 建议不对体形系数进行限制。在气候适宜的地区, 为充分利用自然通风、自然采光, 可以适当放大体形系数。

Yiqun Pan, Yong Sun, Jiachen Mao, Peng Xu. BS 2015, 2015-12

ABSTRACT | A good wind and thermal environment of residential districts can speed up the outdoor heat and pollutant dissipation, as well as ensure the comfort and health of residents. The thermal environment in residential districts is affected mainly by layout form, building shape, underlying surface characteristics, etc. In this paper, a residential area located in Qingdao is studied. Numerical simulations of the wind field and thermal environment of the residential district in summer are adopted to evaluate the rationality of the original design. Then, an improved design is proposed to meet the relevant provisions of evaluation mark of the green building on residential wind and thermal environment through appropriate adjustments of the building layout and the underlying surface characteristics. From the contrast between the simulation results of original and improved designs, it can be concluded that: 1) Setting ventilation aisles in the residential area by adjusting building layout can improve the comfort level of wind environment. 2) Changing the thermal performance of underlying surface materials (such as tree, artificial lake, lawn, etc.) for increasing the reflectivity of the ground material could reduce the ground surface temperature and the sendible temperature in summer to improve thermal comfort of the residential district.

Yiqun Pan, Baiqiu Tian, Jiachen Mao, Zhizhong Huang, Peng Xu. BS 2015, 2015-12

ABSTRACT | In this study, we develop a quadratic homogeneous polynomial (QHP) regression model for predicting chillers and present its online tuning strategy. First, sample data is processed using the ordinary least square (OLS) method to obtain the initial QHP model. Second, errors occurred during on-site monitoring are categorized based on which data-processing rules are deduced to filter outliers. Third, we propose an error controller with the sliding window training approach, which will utilize the processed data to automatically tune the regression coefficients so that the updated information can be used in the chiller model. Finally, a case study was performed to validate this procedure. Results show that the model after online tuning can simulate the current operating condition of centrifugal chillers accurately.

Yiqun Pan, Cong Yu, Jiachen Mao, Weiding Long, Weizhen Chen. BS 2015, 2015-12

ABSTRACT | This study is to assess the impact of residential morphology and microclimate on energy use at the neighbourhood scale. At the scale of 200m×150m, based on the common residential forms in Shanghai, seven real residential districts are selected as research objects, including the garden houses, 6-storey flats, 14-storey flats, 28-storey flats, lane houses, slab-type apartments and high-rise buildings mixed, as well as high-rise buildings and super high-rise buildings mixed. The effects of residential morphology (e.g. building distance, density, etc.) and microclimate (e.g. wind speed, temperature, etc.) on building energy use are quantitatively assessed using EnergyPlus. In sum, data analyses of the comparison among the energy consumption of the seven distinct districts are usable for the optimal design of residential district in energy supply. Finally, a case study was carried out to analyze the effects of different morphology indexes on the energy balance in the same floor-area ratio (FAR).

Yiqun Pan, Sen Huang, Jiachen Mao. Ventilation 2015, 2015-10

ABSTRACT | In this paper, a study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing natural ventilation using operable windows in an airtight high-rise office building, which is located in Shanghai (China), is presented. In this building, the natural ventilation would work collaboratively with the mechanical cooling/ventilation system. In order to help the building operator to decide whether the natural ventilation can be used, a simple rule based on the outdoor air parameters such as wind speed, air temperature and humidity is developed according to the following studies: firstly the outdoor wind environment simulation is performed using CFD (Computation Fluid Dynamics) method to obtain the flow rate of the air into the building under certain wind speed, based on which the cooling load can be calculated; then the calculated cooling load is treated as input variable for simulation of the mechanical cooling/ventilation system to gain the supply air temperature; lastly the supply air temperature is used in the indoor environment simulation to yield the indoor air temperature distribution pattern, based on which the indoor thermal comfort can be assessed. The results show that it is possible to employ natural ventilation without sacrifice of thermal comfort in this building when the outdoor air parameter meets certain requirement.

林美顺, 潘毅群, 龙惟定. 建筑节能, 2015-10

ABSTRACT | 建筑体形系数是体现建筑形态的重要指标, 以上海地区的气候条件作为夏热冬冷地区的典型代表, 采用动态能耗模拟软件De ST-c对办公类建筑进行能耗计算, 引用被动容积率的概念, 考虑建筑利用自然通风及日光照明的最大潜力, 研究建筑体形系数与建筑能耗之间的关系。研究表明, 夏热冬冷地区办公建筑体形系数越大, 建筑的被动容积率越大, 利用自然能源的潜力越大, 建筑能耗越低, 该结果为被动式建筑设计提供参考。

潘毅群, 郁丛, 龙惟定, 陈蔚镇. 暖通空调, 2015-03

ABSTRACT | 从区域建筑负荷与能耗的影响因素和预测方法两方面阐述了区域建筑负荷与能耗预测的研究现状。影响区域建筑负荷与能耗的因素包括单体建筑能耗影响因素和区域特有的影响因素(城市形态与微气候)。基本预测方法有自上而下方法和自下而上方法。自下而上方法较为常见, 在应用时需引入同时使用系数, 并结合情景分析方法。由于没有成熟的区域建筑负荷与能耗预测软件, 目前主要有两种预测方法: 基本模型方法, 如基于实际调研获得的统计模型和利用GIS技术建模等; 考虑微气候与城市形态的影响, 通过能耗模拟软件与其他工具耦合进行模拟。考虑到我国建筑的特点, 可采用自下而上方法与情景分析方法结合进行区域建筑负荷与能耗预测。

ABSTRACT | 本论文通过调研和模拟相结合的手段进行,评价现有住宅小区形态以及该形态下的能耗,研究内容主要分为以两个方面: 一是研究上海地区现有典型住宅小形态以及能耗,调研上海地区现有住宅小区并按照 小区 不同的类型归纳整理,建立7类住宅小区典型模,分析这几种住宅小区形态与能耗的关系和 这几种形态下的被动措施对能耗影响(自然光获取、自然通风等)。 二是研究同一容积率下小区类型和形态因素(建筑高度、密朝向)对能耗的影响。分为两块内容研究:a. 在相同尺度容积率下选择点式、行列和围合住宅小区作为研究对象,每种小区按照体形系数由高到低建立三种模型,共九类进行研究。研究相同容积率下不同类型住宅小区对能耗的影响以及同类住宅小区下不同体形系数对能耗的影响。b. 提取相关形态指标参数(建筑高度,建筑密度,建筑朝向),通过变化指标参数对比同一住宅小区的能耗,判断形态因素对能耗的影响。 本文的研究成果旨在为规划师进行住宅小区的规划设计提供参考,达到量化形态和能耗等各个指标的目的,从而使区域规划更加合理,更符合可持续的发展目标。

ABSTRACT | How much electricity lighting system consumes is up to number of factors, for instance architecture design, glazing specifications, light source, and so on. In order to improve lighting efficiency even more, proper control strategies are necessary to be applied. In which occupant behavior and visual comfort perception have to be considered at the same time. This article is about a study on energy performance of various lighting systems and control strategies applied in open-plan offices. All the experiments were carried out on a test bed which is located on Tongji University, Shanghai. This test bed can realize various control strategies, including daylight linked dimming control and on/off control by occupancy detection. Data of illuminance and power is monitored, displayed and recorded automatically by an online data acquisition system. Online tests were conducted on various lighting control strategies for a period of time and the energy use is compared to that of the lighting system in the baseline office. The energy saving potential of various lighting control strategies is simulated and analyzed. Moreover, a combined lighting control strategy - background dimming lighting + task lighting is studied on the test bed. Occupant behavior and visual comfort are investigated in order to find out the optimal background dimming lighting illumination and energy performance of the combined lighting system is evaluated.

ABSTRACT | Building shape coefficient is an important index in building energy efficiency design, it is considered that the smaller the indicator, the less heat loss via the building envelope and the less energy consumption. However, building energy consumption consists not only air-conditioning consumption, but also lighting consumption. This study is based on the concept of passive volume and assumed to fully use of passive energy, natural ventilation and daylighting, in the passive area of a building. Taking a group of office buildings in Shanghai as an example, with the help of the dynamic simulation software DeST-c, the relationship between the building shape coefficient and building energy consumption is studied.

Yong Sun, Yuming Li, Zhizhong Huang, Yiqun Pan. Asim 2014, 2014-11

ABSTRACT | To study the performance of nozzle air supply in a large space building, this paper builds a simplified computational model of a large exhibition hall applied with vertical nozzle air supply system using the method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The Fluent software is used to realize the three-dimensional simulation and obtain the temperature field and velocity field in the occupied zone at nozzles height of 23m and 33m in summer, respectively. Analysis on simulation results of two cases show that the uniformity of temperature and velocity fields in the occupied zone at nozzles height of 23m are better than 33m under the design condition. The paper also contrasts the simulation result to the axial velocity decay by means of classical jet current formula and puts forward some advices to improve the performance of nozzles in large space building.

丁文婷, 杜俊生, 永濑修, 胡睿, 潘毅群. 暖通空调, 2014-05

ABSTRACT | 介绍了该建筑的自然通风设计、设计阶段对其自然通风性能的模拟计算和竣工后的实测。模拟计算结果表明,过渡季节室内通风换气次数可以达到0.8~3.1h-1。实测结果表明, 开启所有自然通风口时, 室内换气次数可以达到1.0~5.6h-1, 基本上可以满足室内人员所需最低新风量的要求。测试结果与模拟计算结果接近, 自然通风性能基本满足设计要求。

王永龙. 硕士论文, 2014-05

ABSTRACT | 本文提出一套基于简单规则判断和现代寻优算法的建筑能耗模型自动校验方法,旨在通过计算机程序和现代数学寻优算法的应用减少人工校验的工作量,提高校验工作的效率和校验模型的准确度。 首先,本文以办公建筑为例,采用建筑能耗模拟软件eQUEST构建上海地区办公建筑的典型模型,并选取与围护结构、室内负荷、空调系统三个方面相关的多个输入参数进行能耗的敏感性分析,作为后文提出自动校验模拟方法时筛选可调整输入参数的基本依据。然后,分析和论述了简单规则判断方法和粒子群寻优算法(PSO)在校验模拟中的作用,研究其有效性和实现方式,提出基于上述两种方法的模型自动校验方法,在此基础上,针对建筑模型自动校验过程的功能需求进行分析,利用C++语言作为开发工具,使用Visual C++开发出针对DOE-2为计算核心的建筑能耗模型自动校验程序,将上述方法用计算机程序实现。最后,建立两个建筑能耗模型,利用开发出的模型自动校验程序对其进行校验分析,验证了程序的运行稳定性和校验方法的有效性。

郁丛, 王秋涧, 李玉明, 潘毅群. 建筑节能, 2014-04

ABSTRACT | 应用EnergyPlus能耗模拟软件对上海某大学体育中心进行能耗模拟。其中建筑几何使用DesignBuilder软件建立, 而后利用EnergyPlus进行空调建模并计算能耗。在此基础上,由于各个场馆使用情况的不同,挑选典型日对篮球比赛、游泳比赛、羽毛球比赛这三种典型情景分别模拟, 计算其能耗, 并分析能耗特点, 在一定程度上预估该体育中心投入使用后的耗能情况。

ABSTRACT | 本文在对多种现有冷水机组模型(DOE-2、Gordon-Ng 、MP模型)比较分析的基础上 ,提出采用二次齐次多项式回归模型(QHP Model)作为冷水机组性能系数(COP)关于冷冻水进出水温度、冷冻水流量、冷却水进出水温度、冷却水流量六个参数的回归经验关联式, 并基于样本数据,采用最小二乘回归方法(LSE)进行参数估计,建立机组初始QHP模型。随后,本文对现场机组监测数据可能存在的误差进行分类和总结,建立规则库进行有效数据的筛选,采用一阶滞后滤波进行噪声数据的处理,并着重探讨了利用处理后的数据对当前模型进行误差判断的方法及模型在线修正策略。在此基础上,本文基于C++语言开发了离心式冷水机组数值模型的建立及在线修正程序。该程序能够实现离心式冷水机组数值模型的建立、传感器数据读取及预处理、模型误差判断、结果可视化以及模型的在线修正等功能。最后,本文对某离心式冷水机组进行了实例验证,结果表明通过上述方法得到的离心式冷水机组模型能够准确地模拟机组当前工况特性。

田柏秋, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 建筑节能, 2014-02

ABSTRACT | 介绍了5种常用离心式冷水机组经验回归模型: 一次线性模型(SL)、二次线性回归模型(BQ)、多元多项式回归模型(MP)、Gordon-Ng模型、二次齐次多项式回归模型(QHP)。利用①定频、定流量,②变频、定流量, ③变频、冷冻侧变流量、冷却侧不变流量, ④变频、冷冻侧、冷却侧变流量4种类型的离心式冷水机组共4523组数据进行线性回归分析, 结果发现QHP模型对于4种不同类型的机组,模拟效果在5种模型中均最好, 均在94%以上, MP模型采用更少的自变量, 拟合效果趋近于QHP模型, 与QHP模型相差在±2%之间。

ABSTRACT | 简要概括了建筑能耗模拟的校验方法与步骤, 以及敏感性分析在校验模拟中的应用方法和意义。办公建筑的建筑和设备系统模型采用eQUEST3-64建立, 单因子敏感性分析涉及3个方面的模型输入参数, 包括建筑围护结构参数、建筑内部负荷参数以及空调系统参数。通过全年的动态模拟结果分析, 指出和比较各个输入参数的敏感性大小, 为已有办公类型建筑能耗模型的校验提供依据, 也相应的指出了新建建筑节能设计或既有建筑节能改造的重点, 为建筑节能设计和节能改造所需参数的选取提供依据。

花莉, 范蕊, 潘毅群, 高岩, 谢晓红. 暖通空调, 2013-12

ABSTRACT | 建立了冷却塔辅助地埋管地源热泵系统的仿真模型, 分析了复合式系统不同设计方案的运行策略。结果表明: 对于既有地埋管地源热泵系统, 若已按夏季最大释热量设计地埋管长度,则可按热平衡需求选择冷却塔; 对于新建复合式系统, 可按冬季热负荷设计地埋管, 按冷热负荷之差来选择冷却塔, 当热泵机组进口水温超过26℃时开启辅助冷却塔; 此外,采用热泵机组承担全部冬季热负荷和部分夏季冷负荷, 而冷水机组+冷却塔作为夏季补充的方案也可以取得较优的运行效果。

刘羽岱, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 上海市制冷学会2013年学术年会, 2013-12

ABSTRACT | 采用TRNSYS与MATLAB联合仿真的方法将空调系统仿真运行和系统的优化控制动态结合起来, 在仿真平台上实现了空调系统模型预测控制策略的验证。在本文研究中, 以空调系统总能耗为目标函数优化每个控制时间步长内冷冻水供水温度和空气处理机组送风温度,并对该策略所带来的节能效益进行分析和评价。仿真结果表明, 相对于固定值控制策略, 采用模型预测控制的优化模型在夏季典型工况可以节省15.5%的能耗, 在过渡季节典型工况可以节省9.6% 的能耗。

徐哲恬, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 上海市制冷学会2013年学术年会, 2013-12

ABSTRACT | 本文提出了一种基于人工神经网络的机械通风开式冷却塔运行性能在线预测方法。方法以四层BP网络为核心,利用进塔水温、空气湿球温度、塔内水气质量比这三个参数预测出塔水温。在对上海某建筑中的机械通风横流冷却塔进行测试后发现, 出塔水温在线预测值和实测值之间相关系数为0.95, 预测效果良好, 在线预测方法有效。

朱明亚, 潘毅群, 黄治钟, 沙华晶. 上海市制冷学会2013年学术年会, 2013-12

ABSTRACT | 本文将中国东部近百年和近千年气候变化的周期性与常规时间序列方法相结合, 针对上海近50年(1961~2010年)月平均温度观测结果进行时间序列分析。考虑气候变化的不确定性设定3种月际振动情景, 建立时间序列预测模型, 用于上海地区未来100年月平均温度预测。为了使气候变化预测结果能够用于建筑能耗模拟工具, 采用统计降尺度方法Morphing将预测的温度变化与当地现有典型气象年(TMY)相结合, 设定3种日间波动变化情景分别与月际振动情景叠加,生成不同情景下上海地区未来5个时段的TMY。将未来TMY用于当地典型建筑模型,预测21世纪气候变化对上海地区建筑能源需求的影响。

邓小茜, 范蕊, 潘毅群, 马宏权. 上海市制冷学会2013年学术年会, 2013-12

ABSTRACT | 本文基于实际工程项目建立了并联连接混合式土壤源热泵系统的仿真模型, 通过系统实测数据与模拟数据的比较对模型的准确度进行了检验。并且基于己建立的系统模型分别对系统在温度控制、温差控制和冷却塔运行时间控制这3种控制策略下的长期运行情况进行了模拟, 分析比较了各控制策略在不同控制参数设定值下系统的长期运行性能及土壤热平衡情况, 得出了各控制策略对应的最优控制参数设定值, 并且得出了该系统最适合的控制方案, 最后还分析了温度与温差综合控制策略下系统长期运行的情况。

蔡丹丹, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 建筑节能, 2013-12

ABSTRACT | 确定了影响办公光环境舒适性的主观评价指标,运用层次分析法(Analytical Hierarchy Process, 简称AHP法)和德尔菲专家调查法准确地得出各因素对办公光环境舒适性的影响程度, 结果表明,眩光、看物体的清晰程度、颜色真实性以及明暗对比合适度是影响办公光环境舒适度的主要因素, 其权重值分别为29.55%、17.59%、16.77%和14.44%。因此, 在进行办公光环境设计时, 应首要考虑满足权重值高的主观指标。该结果不仅可用于评价办公照明环境质量, 还可用于指导办公照明环境的设计。

Ruijin Zhou, Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang, Qiujian Wang. 2013 IEEE 6th International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing and Applications, 2013-12

ABSTRACT | This paper proposes a data-driven modeling method for building energy consumption prediction and applies it to two actual commercial buildings. Time series analysis is adopted as a main methodology to produce the data-driven model based on monthly actual energy consumption data. The models can be used to predict building future energy consumption, after being modified and verified.

ABSTRACT | 空气侧经济器(Air-side economizer)由于其具有节能效果显著、可提高室内空气品质等优点越来越受到行业内人们的关注。然而在我国, 应用空气侧经济器的空调系统的实际可以达到的最大新风比往往远达不到全新风工况的100%。选择北京、上海、成都、西安和哈尔滨5个城市, 利用eQUEST能耗模拟软件针对1栋商场建筑的典型模型, 对焓差控制、温差控制和固定温度控制3种控制策略下的空气侧经济器在不同可达新风比下的节能量进行了模拟计算, 并对计算结果进行对比, 分析了不同气候、不同控制策略下, 空气侧经济器的节能效果对最大可达新风比的敏感性。

范蕊, 花莉, 潘毅群, 高岩. 建筑热能通风空调, 2013-11

ABSTRACT | 项目规摸(地埋管规摸)对土壤源热泵系统土壤全年热平衡问题影响至关重要, 因此本文针对不同规模、不同冷热负荷比情况下地埋管土壤温度变化进行了研究分析, 结果表明, 当建筑全年累计冷热负荷比从1:1变化至4:1时, 地埋管区域土壤10年累计温升从4.18℃升高到9.11℃,影响较大; 对于5~10口井的小规模建筑, 即使当建筑累计冷热负荷比达到4:1时, 热平衡问题都可以忽略不计, 但是当地埋管规摸增至20口管井时, 热平衡问题必须要予以重视。最后, 本文针对小规模建筑应用土壤源热泵系统时如何缓解并解决土壤热平衡问题进行了研究, 为土壤源热泵系统的研究和应用提供了理论支持。

Yudai Liu, Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang. BS 2013, 2013-08

ABSTRACT | Optimizing the operations of a HVAC system in response to the dynamic loads and varying weather conditions throughout a year can result in substantial energy savings. However, the problems related to HVAC system optimization are always discrete, non-linear and highly constrained. So, a simulation-based optimization approach for a HVAC system is proposed. To minimize the energy consumption while maintaining the corresponding indoor thermal comfort, a model is developed using TRNSYS to simulate an office building and its HVAC system and using MATLAB genetic algorithm toolbox to solve the optimization problem and search for optimal control settings in a receding-horizon manner. The controllable input variables include supply air temperature and chilled water temperature. The results show that 24.1% energy use can be saved by optimizing the operation of the HVAC system.

Mingya Zhu, Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang, Peng Xu, Huajing Sha. BS 2013, 2013-08

ABSTRACT | Future hourly Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather file is a prerequisite for utilization of building energy simulation software to estimate the impact of global climate change on building energy demand. On basis of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - IPCC's latest predictions, this paper produces future TMYs of 3 representative cities in different climate regions in China from 2000 to 2089 including 5 time spans, in the form of EnergyPlus weather file format - EPW. With application of a statistical downscaling method - Morphing, estimated monthly climate change data, calculated by selected General Circulation Model (GCM) under Representative Concentration Pathways, are integrated with local existing TMYs to achieve new TMYs' generation. Building energy demand by 2100 is predicted for three cities by using corresponding new TMYs as input of prototypical building models for annual energy simulation. Considering many uncertainties in IPCC's research, the predicted energy demand in Shanghai is revised by comparing predicted monthly weather data to observed data from 1961 to 2010.

周芮锦, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 暖通空调, 2013-08

ABSTRACT | 将时间序列分析方法应用到商业建筑能耗的分析和预测中, 介绍了建筑能耗预测模型的建模方法,将逐月积温值、逐月相对湿度平均值、逐月工作日天数及逐月非工作日天数4个建筑逐月能耗的主要影响因子引入建筑能耗预测模型, 根据逐月建筑能耗数据, 建立基于时间序列分析并加入物理原理化处理的数据驱动模型, 并进行检验与修正。应用该方法对3个商业建筑进行了实例分析, 结果显示, 对于逐月出租率基本不变的商业建筑, 能耗预测结果较理想。

邓小茜, 潘毅群, 范蕊, 黄治钟. 建筑热能通风空调, 2013-07

ABSTRACT | 本文基于建立的垂直埋管换热器管群土壤源热泵系统模型, 分别分析了土壤源热泵系统应用于办公、商场、住宅、宾馆这四种不同功能建筑时土壤热物性参数、回填料导热系数、埋管规模参数、埋管内流体流量、土壤初始温度及系统日运行时间等因素对系统整体长期(10年)运行性能的影响情况。并且用一元线性或非线性模型回归得到了系统运行10年的平均COP及土壤10年的温升与主要影响参数的关系式, 使各参数的影响程度得到量化, 以期对土壤源热泵系统的实际工程应用提供参考。

Yiqun Pan, Yuan Yao, Zhizhong Huang, Dandan Cai, Norbert Linder. CLIMA 2013, 2013-06

ABSTRACT | This article is about a study on lighting control strategies for fluorescent lighting system applied in open-plan offices. The office where the test bed is located is previously illuminated by conventional fluorescent light tubes and manually controlled. After retrofit, T5 tubes are installed instead and a DALI control system with occupants/light sensors is integrated into the system. This test bed can realize various control strategies, including daylighting dimming control and on/off control by occupancy detection. Data of illuminance and power is monitored, displayed and recorded automatically by an online data acquisition system.

Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang, Yuming Li, Mingming Zuo, Yuan Yao. CLIMA 2013, 2013-06

ABSTRACT | DOAS(dedicated outdoor air system) combined with CRCP (ceiling radiant cooling panel)has been getting more applications around the world due to its advantages on thermal comfort and human health. However, condensation control of ceiling radiant cooling panel is usually a big concern when this system is applied, especially in hot and humid regions. This paper focuses on the study of the control strategies of multi-zone DOAS + ceiling radiant cooling panel system, intending to promote the further development and application of this hybrid system. Firstly the allowed minimum inlet water temperature of radiant cooling panels is investigated and a formulation is given to determine its value. Then, the paper proposes a practical control method for multi-zone DOAS +CRCP system applied in hot and humid regions, based on the study on allowed minimum inlet water temperature of CRCP. The control method is applied in a small project with DOAS+CRCP system installed in an office space with 172.4 sq.m. floor area and four thermal zones and test are conducted on two typical weather data. The test results show that indoor air temperature and humidity can be very well controlled while condensation is successfully avoided.

ABSTRACT | 鉴于已有气候变化预测方法在能耗模拟用未来天气参数的预测上存在空间尺度和时间尺度上的局限性,基于进入全新世以来中国区域长期历史气候变化的规律性研究和时间序列方法在气象学中的应用,本文提出了基于气候变化周期性分析的时间序列预测方法。在上海1961~2010年月平均温度观测数据的基础上,根据中国东部近百年和近千年气候变化的周期性分析,同时考虑未来月际气候不确定性的三种变化情景,建立时间序列预测模型,进行上海地区未来100年月平均温度变化预测。为了使气候变化预测结果能够用于建筑能耗模拟工具进行建筑能源需求预测,本文采用时间序列调整方法 - Morphing对未来月平均温度进行降尺度处理。将预测的气候变化与上海地区现有典型气象年(TMY)相结合,考虑未来日间波动的三种变化情景分别与月际气候不确定性的情景叠加,生成不同情景下未来100年里2000-2017、2018-2035、2036-2053、2054-2071和2072-2089年这5个时段的典型气象年(TMY)逐时天气参数,并将未来典型气象年(TMY)用于上海地区办公、酒店和商场这3种建筑类型的典型模型(Prototypical Building Models),预测未来100年气候变化影响下的上海地区建筑能源需求变化。旨在为当地长期城市规划、能源的开发和利用、建筑节能技术的应用、建筑节能标准的制定以及气候变化的应对等提供科学依据和技术支持。

潘毅群, 吴刚, 黄治钟, 魏玉剑, 莫争春, 左明明, 田柏秋. 第九届国际绿色建筑与建筑节能大会, 2013-04

ABSTRACT | 首先讨论了国内既有建筑节能改造与合同能源管理的现状, 对既有建筑节能量检测与验证的国内和国外的相关标准与规范做了总结和评价。再结合国内合同能源管理国情和实际的合同能源管理项目, 提出了基于实际案例的既有建筑综合改造节能量检测与验证导则, 然后详细介绍了导则内容,包括导则特色、关键词、4种方法、案例。导则提出了适应国内国情的相似日测量法, 并且基于ESCO公司真实项目和实际数据, 强调方法及原理, 步骤性强,不仅是技术准则,更是贴近市场和实际操作的规范和标准。


Jie Shi, Wei Su, Mingya Zhu, Huaning Chen, Yiqun Pan, Shui Wan, Yawei Wang. Energy and Buildings, 2013-03

ABSTRACT | With the development of urbanization in China, more and more high-rise residential buildings are constructed, mostly with 10–15 stories. Solar water heating system has been widely used in low-rise residential buildings in China, while its application in high-rise apartment is still in the initial stage. In this paper, the current application situation of solar water heating system in urban residential buildings of China is investigated. Additionally, demonstration projects of high-rise residential building are introduced, in which the application feasibility and limitation of solar water heating system are emphasized and some appropriate planning types of that are discussed. Finally, this paper analyzes the applicability of solar water heating systems integrated design in typical high-rise apartments from various aspects (such as architectural elevation, architectural plane and detailed construction) in the planning and designing phase.

朱明亚, 潘毅群, 沙华晶, 许鹏, 黄治钟. 建筑节能, 2013-03

ABSTRACT | 20世纪以来 ,全球气候变暖趋势已得到证实, 对生态系统和人居环境造成的影响备受瞩目, 气候变化无疑将对建筑能源需求产生重大影响。基于IPCC最新预测结果, 选择我国3个典型气候区代表城市——北京、上海和广州,采用统计降尺度方法 -Morphing, 在现有典型气象年的基础上, 结合地球气候模式(GCM)在气候变化中间稳定路径(RCP4.5)和高端路径(RCP8.5)下的大尺度预测结果,进行未来天气参数预测。针对每个城市、每个气候变化路径各生成5个未来时间段的TMY逐时天气参数文件, 用于典型建筑模型进行全年能耗模拟, 预估典型城市建筑能源需求在未来100年里的变化趋势。

徐哲恬, 潘毅群, 李玉明, 邓小茜. 建筑节能, 2013-03

ABSTRACT | 阐述了区域供冷供热在校园规划中的实施方法, 并以上海市近郊的某一个实际工程为案例, 详细分析了校园的供冷供热负荷。在此基础上, 模拟了3种供能方案: 单体建筑独立设置供冷供热系统、区域集中设置供冷供热系统、集成地源热泵的混合式区域供冷供热系统。3种方案的对比说明: 校园实行区域集中供能既可以降低投资成本, 又可以提高机组运行效率, 降低能耗。当将地源热泵系统集成到区域供冷供热系统中时, 可以进一步降低能耗。

刘羽岱. 硕士论文, 2013-03

ABSTRACT | 本文采用耦合TRNSYS和MATLAB/Simulink的方法建立一个联合仿真平台,通过TRNSYS自带组件Type155实现两者的数据通信和联合仿真,以充分利用两个软件的长处,从而对HVAC控制策略进行更为准确的评价。欧盟EN15232标准中的一些控制策略在这个平台上得到了评价和验证。随后,本文在联合仿真平台的基础上研究了一种先进的控制策略——模型预测控制,用于全局优化空调系统的运行。为了采用全局控制器来解决空调系统运行的优化问题,本文采用了基于仿真的优化技术。具体来说,采用MATLAB自带的遗传算法工具箱以滚动优化的方式来对每个控制器的设定值进行寻优,采用封装TRNSYS程序到MATLAB函数的方法来计算目标函数值。所考虑的控制变量包括送风温度和冷冻水供水温度。研究结果表明,和固定设定值的控制策略相比,采用滚动优化的控制策略在夏季设计日工况下,可以节省15.5%的能源;在过度季节典型工况日,可以节省9.6%的能源。

ABSTRACT | 本文主要分析并探索了针对机械通风开式冷却塔运行性能的在线预测方法。研究中,选用出塔水温来表征冷却塔的运行性能,重点分析了进塔水温、湿球温度、水气质量比三个参数对出塔水温的影响,并用这三个参数预测出塔水温。本文使用四层 BP 神经网络模型对冷却塔出塔水温进行在线学习和预测,建模过程中所使用的数据来自实际运行中的机械通风逆流冷却塔。在确定模型有效后,着重探讨了如何处理实际运行时易发生的运行工况突变情况。经过研究发现,选用合适的采样周期既可以客观地反映冷却塔的运行性能,也可以快速剔除工况突变点,降低工况突变对BP 神经网络稳定性和预测准确性的影响。在这些研究基础上,本文又运用了另外一组机械通风横流冷却塔的实测数据进行算法校验。通过实验和校验,证明了所提出的算法可以实现机械通风开式冷却塔运行性能的在线预测。整个在线预测过程要经历5 个阶段:前期调研、实测准备、试运行、在线学习、预测。算法会监测累积预测误差。如果一个小时内的累积预测误差超过工程允许的范围,那么就需要更新训练样本,重新学习。就已测试的冷却塔而言,出塔水温在线预测值与实测值之间最大预测误差未超过±3.3℃,有87.2%组数据的预测误差未超过±1℃,绝对误差平均值为0.16℃,误差向零点集中。预测值和实测值之间的相关系数为0.95,接近于1。满足工程上的误差控制要求,预测结果有效,算法成立。

秦业美. 硕士论文, 2013-03

ABSTRACT | 作者选用EnergyPlus作为工具的计算内核,研究其计算原理和数据结构,将其输入参数归类、组合和模块化。结合建筑师在建筑初步设计阶段的使用要求和能耗计算的必需输入量,确定了工具的输入参数,并在工具内部设置建筑形状、围护结构材料、建筑类型、空调系统和冷热源的模板,可供用户选择调用。从用户端获取的信息,直接作为或分解后成为EnergyPlus的负荷、系统、设备或经济模块的输入项,确保输入数据文件完整有效,经EnergyPlus计算后生成简洁形象的结果报告。 本课题的意义在于简化建筑能耗模拟中的相关信息输入过程,并实现建筑冷热负荷、逐月分项能耗和能源费用的计算,方便设计者快速比选多个设计方案,以确定技术经济指标最优的方案。

黄森, 潘毅群. 建筑节能, 2012-06

ABSTRACT | 定量分析了空调房间开窗对室内热湿环境的影响, 主要采用计算流体力学及系统仿真方法分别对建筑渗透风量及在此风量下室内的温湿度进行了分析, 并以上海某高层建筑为例具体阐述了上述方法。案例分析表明对于特定建筑来说, 当室外温湿度在一定的范围内时可以在保证室内舒适性的前提下利用开窗渗透进行通风换气以补偿新风, 同时稀释室内污染物。

王龙, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 建筑节能, 2012-06

ABSTRACT | 流量系数是反映建筑开口自然通风量的一个重要参数。利用Fluent软件对不同形式的建筑开口在自然通风下的流量系数进行了模拟计算, 分析其各项影响因素包括通风口面积、通风口高宽比、通风口开启角度、通风口两侧温差等的影响情况。再利用SPSS软件对模拟结果进行多元回归, 定量分析平开窗、推拉窗以及悬窗3种开口的流量系数。

Yiqun Pan, Mingya Zhu, Kwan Seok Jeong, Li Hua, Yujian We. ICAE 2012, 2012-06

ABSTRACT | This paper presents the status quo of new buildings and existing buildings in China and the applicable energy efficiency technologies in the two types of buildings. In order to offer a panoramic view of building energy efficiency industry in China, a full list with 63 adopted Energy Efficiency Technologies (EETs) is achieved, and they are classified into five categories: (1) Architectural solutions (2) Building services (3) Green IT (4) Renewables (5) Others. The study includes the survey of each applicable EET on its core technology, current status (development stage), energy saving potential, technology commercialization (major market barriers), feasible application and cost effectiveness. In the promotion of all EETs’ application, there’s no doubt that Energy Services Companies (ESCOs) play an important role, whose primary business is energy performance contracting. A brief survey on the ESCO industry in Shanghai has been made, including 130 ESCOs in total. The survey covers the scale, technology fields, investment and payback period of ESCOs.

ABSTRACT | 论文首先讨论了自然通风的各种影响因素,再利用Fluent 软件分别分析了建筑表面风压系数受建筑面积、建筑长宽比、室外来流风向、建筑高度以及水平相对位置等因素的影响情况、不同类型外窗的流量系数受窗户面积、窗户高宽比、窗户开度以及窗户两侧温差等因素的影响情况和内门的流量系数受门面积、门的高宽比以及门的开度等因素的影响情况,并利用SPSS 软件进行多元回归分析统计得到各参数受相应因素的影响规律,为快速、定量化地计算建筑自然通风流量提供了依据。然后,对某一典型办公建筑,根据上海典型年气象数据,计算出该建筑采用自然通风时的通风量,并根据气象数据以及室内热舒适范围统计得到全年的自然通风可利用小时数。最后,根据统计得到的自然通风使用时间表,针对前面讨论的典型办公建筑,利用EnergyPlus 软件模拟计算了采用自然通风后全年的运行能耗的节省,从而确定采用自然通风的节能潜力。

潘毅群, 李玉明. 实验室研究与探索, 2012-03

ABSTRACT | 针对实验教学在整个工学课程中的重要性, 以建筑环境学课程的实验教学为例, 探讨实验教学改革。在整个实验教学改革中, 提出了开放性实验、综合考核体系等创新成果, 取得了良好的效果。

花莉, 潘毅群, 范蕊, 黄治钟. 建筑节能, 2012-03

ABSTRACT | 夏热冬冷这种冷负荷占优地区, 若由土壤源热泵系统承担所有的空调负荷, 则会造成全年土壤取放热量的不平衡, 从而出现常年运行后土壤温度的逐渐上升, 降低系统夏季的运行效率, 不利于系统持续稳定高效的运行。为此首先利用模拟软件TRNSYS搭建土壤源热泵系统模型, 对土壤源热泵系统长期运行性能进行模拟分析, 从冬夏累计负荷比、埋管间距、埋管深度、土壤导热系数、回填料导热系数这几个影响因素出发,研究土壤源热泵长期运行的热平衡问题, 以期对土壤源热泵系统的合理应用和发展提供支持。

ABSTRACT | 本文首先在实测参数的基础上利用模拟软件TRNSYS搭建地源热泵系统模型,对地源热泵系统长期运行性能进行模拟分析,从钻孔间距、钻孔深度、土壤导热系数、回填料导热系数、冬夏累计负荷比和项目规模这几个影响因素出发,研究地源热泵长期运行的热平衡问题,明确各因素对土壤热平衡的影响。经分析,前四项可以在一定程度上影响土壤的温升,而当运行时间确定时冬夏累计负荷比和项目规模是引起土壤热平衡问题的根本原因。对于20口井以内的小规模建筑,当累计冷热负荷比不是很大的时候可以不考虑热平衡问题。 然后,本文介绍了三种复合式地源热泵系统的设计方案及各种运行策略,并对每种设计方案的各种运行策略进行热平衡效果与运行特性分析,针对不同情况给出推荐方案。设计方案1按照最大释热量设计地埋管,按照热平衡需求选择冷却塔,较适合既有建筑的改造,设计方案2和方案3按照热负荷设计地埋管,按照冷热负荷之差来选择冷却塔,较适合新建建筑。 本文通过对土壤热平衡影响因素的研究,明确了各因素的影响规律和不能忽略土壤热平衡问题的边界,并且针对既有建筑提出了改造方案,针对新建建筑给出了在满足热平衡要求下的较优运行策略,对于复合式地源热泵系统的设计和运行有很好的参考价值。

周芮锦. 硕士论文, 2012-03

ABSTRACT | 本文基于逐月建筑能耗数据与物理化原理,提出一种普适性的建筑能耗预测模型的建模方法,并将其应用到不同的商业建筑实例中,建立基于时间序列分析并加入物理原理化处理的数据驱动模型,在经过模型修正与验证后,用以进行能耗预测。 本文采用统计学软件Eviews与Spss进行数据处理。首先采用CensusX12季节调整方法对建筑能耗逐月数据进行季节调整;然后根据组合时间序列的理论和方法对季节调整后得到的趋势循环项建立相应的组合模型;再对季节调整后得到的季节因子与不规则因子进行分析研究,引入影响建筑能耗的主要影响因子,进行物理原理化拟合处理得到相应的回归拟合模型;最后将所建立的组合时序模型与回归拟合模型合并,得到最终的建筑能耗预测模型。采用预测模型对不同商业建筑的能耗进行预测、分析与评价,并研究分析该建筑能耗预测方法的局限性。 本文将时间序列分析方法引入建筑能耗的研究领域,对这一新方法的可行性和可用性做了深入研究,并取得了较好的结果,为时间序列分析方法在暖通专业,尤其是在建筑能耗的相关研究领域中的应用提供了有益的参考和借鉴。

周芮锦, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 建筑节能, 2012-02

ABSTRACT | 建立了基于时间序列分析方法的建筑能耗预测模型, 对上海某办公建筑逐月能耗进行预测。采用CensusX12方法进行季节调整, 建立ARMA时序模型, 并对季节因子进行温度化处理。模拟结果表明, 采用时间序列分析的方法来预测建筑能耗是一种有效方法。

张洁, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 暖通空调, 2011-12

ABSTRACT | 分析了已有的变风量空调系统送风机控制方法, 提出了基于实测主风管风量的静压设定值重置方法。在小型变风量系统实验室中分别进行了定静压法和静压重置法实验, 比较了两种控制方法。针对实验室实验的局限性, 在仿真平台上进行了一系列的仿真实验。最后从系统稳定性、风机节能潜力以及适用范围等方面评价了静压重置法。

姚远, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 建筑节能, 2011-12

ABSTRACT | 为了减少照明系统的电力消耗, 最基本的方式是提高光源效率及照明附件的能效, 这种方法现今发展已较为成熟, 成本较低。如果要进一步提高人工照明效率, 则需要配合使用适当的控制系统, 充分利用"免费"的自然光,减少人为浪费, 从而达到节能目的并介绍了智能控制系统在荧光灯照明的办公空间中的应用。

ABSTRACT | 论文首先总结不同的照明控制方式,分析两个重要因素——自然采光和使用者行为模式对照明能耗的影响;然后对一办公建筑内某开敞办公室进行日光利用潜力的静态和动态分析,并对原有的手动照明控制系统进行改造,搭建成可实现多种控制策略的实验平台,包括日光相关的调光控制和人员探测的开关控制等,同时配备相应的照度和用电量采集监测、在线显示、自动记录系统,比较基准办公室和实验台在不同控制策略运行下的照明用电量差异;最后根据实验所得数据,采用建筑能耗模拟的方法,分析不同照明控制策略对建筑内各分项能耗的影响。

黄森, 潘毅群. 制冷与空调, 2011-04

ABSTRACT | 目前数据中心能耗问题在节能的大背景下受到人们的关注,而矛盾的是数据中心能耗的实测数据却相对比较匮乏,这给其节能研究的开展带来了阻碍。在此背景下,通过对上海某数据中心机房的现场调研获得了其能耗的相关数据,并在实测数据的基础上深入分析了该数据中心的能效性能。


Yiqun Pan, Mingming Zuo, Gang Wu. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 2011-03

ABSTRACT | This article explores how to use EnergyPlus to construct models to accurately simulate complex building systems as well as the inter-relationships among sub-systems such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting and service hot water systems. The energy consumption and cost of a large public building are simulated and calculated for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification using EnergyPlus. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) baseline model is constructed according to ASHRAE 90.1 standard and the comparison of annual energy consumption between ASHRAE baseline model and proposed model is carried out. Moreover, an energy efficiency (EE) model is built based on the design model. Meanwhile, other energy conservation measures (ECMs) such as daylighting dimming and occupant sensors are considered. The simulation results show 4.7% electricity consumption decrease but 6.9% gas consumption increase of the EE model compared to ASHRAE baseline model. In summary, the annual energy cost of the EE model is reduced by 7.75%.

黄森. 硕士论文, 2011-03

ABSTRACT | 在本文中,首先介绍了数据中心这一特殊建筑形式的相关情况,分别就其发展历史、一般组成、主要分类及相关规范等作了相应的讨论,为后文的分析提供背景资料。其次介绍了目前在数据中心能耗方面的研究进展,重点评估数据中心估算方法的精确性并对其未来发展趋势进行了预测;再次在对数据中心能耗特点分析的基础上讨论了其节能潜力,并就相关节能措施对于数据中心空调系统的适用性进行了分析;然后对上海某数据中心进行了现场调研,并测量了其能耗情况、温湿度分布等相关参数,并以此为依据分析了该数据中心存在的一些具有代表性的问题。最后通过估算及模拟的方法,定量分析了数据中心空调系统各种节能措施的节能效果,力图为各技术在数据中心中的实际应用推广提供设计依据和数据支持。

Yiqun Pan, Qiqiang Li, Hui Zhou, Joe Huang, Sen Huang, Zhizhong Huang, Zongjian He. ASME2010 IMECE, 2010-11

ABSTRACT | In order to make EnergyPlus easier to use in China, VisualEPlus, a Chinese graphical user interface for the program, has been developed. VisualEPlus is designed to be generic, so that it can be used in any country, as well as be linked to other modeling tools and interfaces for EnergyPlus. VisualEPlus has three main modules: (1) a Building Loads Module for defining the building geometry, envelope, and space conditions that has been adapted from an existing DOE-2 interface (DOE2IN); (2) a HVAC System Module with a drag-and-drop feature for defining the HVAC system; and (3) a View Report Module with a reporting and visualization tool for EnergyPlus reports and outputs. This paper presents the background and development of VisualEPlus, describes its main functions and features as compared to other existing interfaces for EnergyPlus, and discusses plans for the further development of VisualEPlus.

Yiqun Pan, Yuming Li, Jie Shi, Chunxiang Wang, Kwan Seok Jeong, Jaemin Kim, Ji-Young Lee, Cameron Johnstone, Jun Hong, Ji Young Park, Gyoung Min Park. ASME2010 IMECE, 2010-11

ABSTRACT | There are many new city and district development projects ongoing in China, which are aimed at developing and building the low carbon emission cities of the future. The Energy Utilities sector is also facing new challenges from policy and regulations aimed at improving energy efficiency, adopting clean energy and mitigating environmental impact. As such, energy supply systems are becoming increasingly complex due to the installation and operation of multiple renewable energy systems. A Multi Utility Complex (MUC) has been proposed as a new and more effective way of constructing urban utility systems, in which facilities for utility services (e.g. energy supplies, water/sewage treatment and waste management plants) are physically installed at one site and managed by an integrated operating centre. When designing a MUC to be ‘cleaner’, more efficient and economical, determining an appropriate capacity of each component constituting the MUC is an essential and not trivial task due to the complexity of resource /energy flows and constraints associated with energy policy and regulations. To address this, an optimization design methodology has been adopted on the basis of a population-base optimization algorithm in support of cost-effective investment. The methodology is implemented in a software tool, ‘Plant Optimizer’, equipped with an urban utility demand profile modeller, the MUC package with different installation scenarios, analysis modules and reporting facility. This paper describes the optimizing methodology and functions of the software tool, and presents a case study to demonstrate the applicability.


Zhizhong Huang, Yiqun Pan, Gang Wu. ASME2010 IMECE, 2010-11

ABSTRACT | Chiller plants of HVAC systems usually operate in part-load conditions during most time of a year. Energy efficiency (i.e. energy input ratio, EIR) of chiller plant components such as chillers, pumps, and cooling towers are the functions of part-load ratio (PLR) and other variables. However, different chiller plant components have different functions of EIR to PLR and don’t reach their respective peaks at the same part-load ratio. Based on this fact, there are possibilities that overall efficiency of a chiller plant can be improved to and maintained at the maximum via optimal control of operating numbers and set-points of various plant components at various part-load ratios. An emulation-based optimal control strategy for chiller plants is introduced in the paper. The main idea of this control strategy is to set up a virtual chiller plant as a mirror of a real system. The virtual system is composed of mathematical models that are obtained through theoretical derivation, numerical calculation or off-line test. These models can emulate energy performances of the physical components in the real system. An optimization algorithm is first run on the virtual system to search for an optimal combination of the operating number and set-points of various components to achieve the highest overall efficiency of a chiller plant. An objective function of the optimization algorithm is the overall efficiency of a chiller plant, having real-time cooling load and meteorological data as inputs, and energy and mass balance and component capacities and restrictions as constraint conditions. Once an optimal combination is identified, it will be used to control the real system operation. A mockup system has been installed and operated in a 50,000 m2 office building in Shanghai, China in order to test and verify the optimal control strategy. Preliminary testing results show that the annual overall energy efficiency of the chiller plant (with constant speed centrifugal chillers) is from 0.7 kW/Ton to 0.75 kW/Ton, about 25% less than that of the same plant controlled by normal strategy.

林兴斌, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 建筑热能通风空调, 2010-10

ABSTRACT | 变风量(VAV)空调系统因其优良的节能性和舒适性, 获得了越来越广泛的应用。由于VAV系统的特性, 需要复杂的自动控制系统来维持系统的正常运行, 而不同的控制策略对建筑能耗以及舒适性的作用存在较大差异。本文分析了VAV系统中对能耗影响较大的常用控制系统: 房间送风控制、空调箱送风控制、送风温度控制、制热(制冷)设备的控制、水泵控制, 并分别选择各控制系统的基本策略和优化策略, 利用TRNSYS仿真六个控制策略组合模型, 分析各种控制策略对空调系统能耗的影响。结果显示, 房间送风控制、水泵控制策略对能耗影响较为明显, 而送风温度控制、冷冻水供水温度重置对能耗影响较小。

张洁, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 建筑热能通风空调, 2010-10

ABSTRACT | 通过对已有的变风量空调系统中送风机控制方法, 如定静压法、变(定)静压法、总风量法进行分析, 提出了基于实测主风管风量的静压设定值重置方法, 讨论了不同的空调分区形式、不同的变风量末端对这一方法的影响, 并将其应用实验室变风量空调系统, 根据实验结果对于其节能效果进行了分析。

Yiqun Pan, Qiqiang Li, Hui Zhou, Zhizhong Huang, Zongjian He, Joe Huang. Simbuild 2010, 2010-08

ABSTRACT | In order to make EnergyPlus easier to use in China, VisualEPlus, a Chinese graphical user interface for the program, has been developed. VisualEPlus is designed to be generic, so that it can be used in any country, as well as be linked to other modeling tools and interfaces for EnergyPlus. VisualEPlus has three main modules: (1) a Building Loads Module for defining the building geometry, envelope, and space conditions that has been adapted from an existing DOE-2 interface (DOE2IN); (2) a HVAC System Module with a drag-and-drop feature for defining the HVAC system; and (3) a View Report Module with a reporting and visualization tool for EnergyPlus reports and outputs. This paper presents the background and development of VisualEPlus, describes its main functions and features as compared to other existing interfaces for EnergyPlus, and discusses plans for the further development of VisualEPlus.


Yiqun Pan, Yuming Li, Zhizhong Huang, Gang Wu. Energy and Buildings, 2010-08

ABSTRACT | In recent years, highly glazed atria are popular because of their architectural aesthetics and advantage of introducing daylight into inside. However, cooling load estimation of such atrium buildings is difficult due to complex thermal phenomena that occur in the atrium space. The study aims to find out a simplified method of estimating cooling loads through simulations for various types of atria in hot and humid regions. Atrium buildings are divided into different types. For every type of atrium buildings, both CFD and energy models are developed. A standard method versus the simplified one is proposed to simulate cooling load of atria in EnergyPlus based on different room air temperature patterns as a result from CFD simulation. It incorporates CFD results as input into non-dimensional height room air models in EnergyPlus, and the simulation results are defined as a baseline model in order to compare with the results from the simplified method for every category of atrium buildings. In order to further validate the simplified method an actual atrium office building is tested on site in a typical summer day and measured results are compared with simulation results using the simplified methods. Finally, appropriate methods of simulating different types of atrium buildings are proposed.

ABSTRACT | 由于HVAC控制策略性能的实验研究需要耗费巨大的财力和人力,且研究对象一般是固定的,而现有的能够用于控制系统仿真的软件工具的功能还不能够单独适应日益复杂的控制系统,因此有必要建立一个新的仿真环境来评价HVAC控制策略。本论文致力于研究在软-硬件联合仿真平台中对HVAC控制策略的性能评价,分析在不同仿真平台中对控制策略仿真结果的影响因素,为以后开发性能更完备的HVAC控制系统仿真平台提供一些思路。为了实现这一目标,本文首先分析了可行的HVAC控制策略性能评价方法,为软件-硬件仿真平台的开发提供理论基础;然后设计了作为案例的建筑、空调系统和对应控制策略模型;并阐述了软件-硬件联合仿真平台的方案设计,开发一个基于OPC协议的中间件用于软件和硬件的实时通信,并讨论在仿真平台开发过程中出现的一系列问题;分别在能耗模拟软件TRNSYS以及所开发的软件-硬件联合仿真平台中实现所描述的典型HVAC控制系统的两个不同等级控制策略;最后通过比较这四个模型结果来分析在不同仿真平台中控制策略仿真结果的影响因素。 结果表明,可以利用所开发的软件-硬件联合仿真平台对控制策略进行仿真,仿真平台能够充分利用现有软件工具和硬件的优势,用于仿真HVAC控制系统仿真与控制策略的评价,为HVAC控制系统的控制策略评价提供了可行的方法与新的仿真平台。

潘毅群, 殷荣欣, 楼振飞. 暖通空调, 2010-06

ABSTRACT | 基于现场调研数据,对10幢大型公共建筑的单位面积能耗、围护结构、空调系统及冷热源等进行了分析和评价, 通过同类型建筑间能耗的比较,找出能耗差异的主要原因并提出了节能措施。将10幢建筑的能耗与上海商业建筑数据库、美国商业建筑的相关能耗统计数据进行了对比分析, 提出有效的节能措施。

徐伟, 潘毅群, Don Anderson, 陈梅真. 第六届国际绿色建筑与建筑节能大会, 2010-03

ABSTRACT | 本文将着重探讨开发适用于中国建筑能耗评测体系(或"建筑能耗评测工具")的机会、选择和最新进展, 从而帮助在大范围内减少建筑类能耗及温室气体排放; 分享美国环保署"能源之星"(ENERGYSTAR)项目能耗评级体系开发和使用中得到的经验; 介绍"美国环保署评测工具"及最新的由美国国际开发署和能源基金会支持的、开发适用于中国的建筑能耗评测工具的进展; 开发活动由中国建筑科学研究院、同济大学和ICF国际咨询公司共同进行。

ABSTRACT | 本文首先介绍了已有的变风量空调系统送风机的控制方法(定静压法、变(定)静压法、总风量法),比较了它们的优缺点,在此基础上提出了一种新的变风量空调送风机的控制方法---基于实测总风量(风速)的静压设定值重置法,分析了它具体的实现方法和相比于其它方法的优势。在实验室空调系统的基础上设计并调试了VAV 控制系统,分别进行了定静压法和静压重置法的实验,验证了这一新控制方法的可行性并讨论了其对风机能耗的影响。针对实验的局限性,在Matlab/Simulink 环境下建立了变风量空调系统风侧的仿真模块库,对常见办公标准层的变风量空调系统搭建了研究不同送风机控制方法的仿真平台,进行了一系列的仿真实验:包括定静压法、重置法、变定静压法的控制效果比较;不同末端形式的比较;不同设定点位置的控制效果的比较,并根据仿真结果,估算了重置法的节能潜力。最后,在理论分析、实验研究和仿真研究的基础上,从系统稳定性、风机节能效果以及适用范围等方面评价了重置法,对重置法具体的实施提出了一些建议。

林兴斌, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 建筑节能, 2010-02

ABSTRACT | 介绍了HVAC控制系统仿真的发展状况以及面临的挑战, 在TRNSYS中建立VAV系统的空气系统和水系统控制策略仿真模型, 并分别建立了基准模型和优化模型两个不同控制策略组合, 讨论了仿真过程中遇到的困难和解决方法, 最后分析模拟结果并评价用TRNSYS仿真控制系统的能力, 并为控制系统的仿真平台的建设提供一些思路。结果显示虽然存在一定缺陷, TRNSYS是一款相对可行和可靠的控制系统仿真平台。

周兰兰, 潘毅群. 暖通空调, 2009-10

ABSTRACT | 从系统设计、设备的选择、系统的优化、运行费用、投资回收期和系统的安全可靠性等方面, 详细分析了上海某IT企业研发中心大楼数据中心的空调系统设计及节能优化。

ABSTRACT | Public buildings include office building, schools, hotels, hospitals, retails and others. This paper selects two types of existing public buildings — office and hotel to conduct research. It firstly introduces and analyzes the feasible energy saving retrofitting strategies and technologies for existing public buildings in Shanghai, mainly about building envelope, HVAC system and lighting system. Then it builds up prototypical models, with whole building energy analysis software—EnergyPlus, for office and hotel respectively to simulate and calculate the annual energy saving and payback period of the various strategies. Therefore the different features of the two types of buildings and the energy saving effects of various strategies used on them are studied. The results show that the energy saved by each one strategy may be different for different types of existing buildings. For office buildings, such ECMs (energy conservation measures) as external shading, energy efficient lighting system, daylighting in perimeter area and variable pumps have short payback period. While for hotels, external shading, variable pumps and temperature reset have short payback period.


Yiqun Pan, Yan Qu, Yuming Li. ES 2009, 2009-07

ABSTRACT | The paper predicts and studies on the cooling loads of the pavilions in 2010 Shanghai World Expo based on the general planning of the expo. The simulation models are established using DOE-2, for the various pavilions: 5 permanent pavilions, national pavilions, international organization pavilions, corporate pavilions, and temporary exhibition pavilions. The modularization method is used to simplify the simulation models of the temporary exhibition pavilions. The cooling loads of the various pavilions from May 1st to Oct 31st 2010 are simulated and analyzed, including hourly cooling loads, monthly cooling loads and hourly cooling loads on summer design day. Lastly, three factors — weather, visitor flow rate and outdoor air supplying mode, are selected to conduct the uncertainty analysis on their impact on the cooling loads.

Yiqun Pan, Yuming Li, Zhizhong Huang . BS 2009, 2009-07

ABSTRACT | In recent years, highly glazed atriums are favorable to architectural aesthetics and to taking advantage of daylighting and solar heating. However, the estimation of the building load of an atrium building is difficult because of the complex thermal phenomena occurred in the atrium space. The study aims to find out the methods of conducting accurate simulations of the cooling loads of various types of atriums, using whole building energy simulation tool – EnergyPlus. Cases of atrium buildings are collected and classified into various categories. For every category of atrium building, CFD models and energy models are developed. The simplified methods of simulating the cooling loads of atriums using different room air temperature patterns are summarised and applied to EnergyPlus. The non-dimensional height room air models with CFD results are defined as the baseline models to find out the most accurate model for every category of atrium building. In order to validate the methods an actual atrium office building is tested on site on a typical summer day and the results are compared with simulation results using the simplified methods. Finally, appropriate methods of simulating different types of atrium buildings are proposed.

李玉明, 潘毅群, 陈晨. 建设科技, 2009-06

ABSTRACT | 本文介绍了适用于上海市既有办公建筑节能改造的各项技术措施,包括围护结构、空调系统和照明系统等方面。然后建立上海地区既有办公建筑的典型建筑模型(prototypical building model),将各项节能改造技术措施应用于典型模型,模拟计算各项技术的全年能耗节省,并进行投资回收分析,以研究比较各项节能措施的应用效果。

李玉明, 潘毅群, 陈晨. 建筑热能通风空调, 2009-04

ABSTRACT | 本文选择公共建筑中的两类建筑——办公建筑和宾馆建筑作为研究对象, 首先介绍和分析了适用于上海市既有公共建筑节能改造的各项技术措施, 包括围护结构、空调系统和照明系统等方面。然后分别建立上海地区既有办公和宾馆建筑的典型建筑模型(Prototypical building model),将各项节能改造技术措施应用于典型模型, 模拟计算各项技术的全年能耗节省, 并进行投资回收分析, 以研究比较两类建筑的不同特点以及各项节能措施在两类建筑上应用的效果。

ABSTRACT | 建筑能耗模拟是绿色建筑设计和建筑节能改造的必不可少的支持工具。在《建筑能耗模拟——绿色建筑设计与建筑节能改造的支持工具之一:基本原理与软件》的基础上, 分别针对绿色建筑设计和建筑节能改造给出两个案例。

李玉明. 硕士论文, 2009-03

ABSTRACT | 近年来,采光中庭因其建筑美学及自然采光和供暖的特性深受人们的欢迎。但是,由于中庭空间的大空间和大面积采光引起的中庭空间内复杂的热环境,使我们很难对中庭建筑的负荷进行准确计算。因此本文旨在寻求一种用能耗模拟软件EnergyPlus准确模拟计算各类中庭建筑负荷的方法。 首先通过文献资料搜集各类中庭信息,确定出影响中庭负荷的因子,根据这些影响因子对中庭建筑进行分类。然后对每类中庭建筑分别建立CFD模型和能耗模型,CFD模型用于模拟中庭空间的温度分层,能耗模型则用于模拟计算中庭空间的负荷。根据CFD模拟结果归纳出模拟计算中庭空间负荷的简化方法(包括充分混合模型、单梯度温度模型和自定义温度模型等),并在能耗模型中应用各简化方法计算中庭空间的负荷。将由CFD模拟得到中庭空间的温度分层输入自定义温度模型,模拟计算出中庭空间负荷并作为中庭空间最接近实际负荷的结果,然后比较各简化方法模拟结果的准确性,最后总结出适用于一定体型中庭建筑的负荷模拟简化计算方法。 为了验证这种模拟计算方法的准确性,本文以某一实际的中庭建筑为研究对象,在典型夏季日对该建筑进行中庭空间温度分层及室内负荷使用情况、建筑逐时负荷的现场测试,并用实测数据作为模拟的输入参数,以保证模型的准确性,从而验证该模拟计算方法的准确性。

ABSTRACT | 本论文首先描述了在加州气候炎热地区利用建筑材料的蓄热能力进行错峰研究的背景,并介绍该论文实测建筑所在的气候区域特性,从生物气候图的角度阐述了建筑材料的蓄热能力在被动式降温和延迟峰值负荷方面的潜力。提出人为的预冷和室内设定温度重置策略,其目的是降低峰值时段的电力需求负荷,同时得益于不同时段的电力价格差,提高整个建筑运行的经济效益。其次针对几种不同的预冷和室内设定温度重置策略进行模拟分析,通过模拟结果的横向对比,了解不同策略在降低电力负荷方面的潜力。并选择两幢实际商业建筑,在不同的气候条件下针对不同类型的预冷策略进行实测调查。该部分内容涉及到基准日模型的选择与确定,并通过比较不同预冷和室内设定温度重置策略下建筑能耗变化与基准日模型之间的对比,了解每一种策略的错峰的潜力以及经济效益。实测结果表明预冷策略在炎热气候条件下可以提高建筑对需求侧变化的响应,并且不影响室内舒适度水平,此外预冷策略改善了峰值时段需求负荷降低的深度以及持久度。 为了能够在实测调查之前把握实测建筑在需求响应策略下的需求降低潜力和效果,我们利用需求响应快速评估软件DRQAT 对两幢实测建筑进行能耗模拟及校正工作,在校正后的基准模型基础上,对实测的预冷策略进行模拟对比分析,将模拟结果与实测数据相对比,确定该软件在能耗负荷预测方面的可靠性,以及提供模型建立和校正的方法,为以后在做类似相关工作提供实测数据和研究方法。

ABSTRACT | 本论文着眼于多区独立新风+冷辐射吊顶系统,研究该复合系统协调运行的控制策略,以期推进该复合系统的进一步应用。本文首先研究了能够避免项板发生结露的顶板极限进口水温,通过基于THERM的有限元分析模型,结合实际实验台上进行的六个结露实验,得到在顶板尺寸、材料物性和冷冻水流态一定的情况下,顶板进口水温与顶板表面最低温度之间的温差为一个定值。在该极限进水温度研究基础上,本文进一步研究了三种冷项板进口水温控制策略:室温跟踪法、水温跟踪法及冷凝水保护环路的顶板进水温度控制法,通过对这三种控制策略调节过程的讨论,分析了它们存在的优点和不足。在分析和比较了最不利参数法及允许波动区法这两种多区参数选择法的基础上,本文分别提出并讨论了独立新风系统的温湿度闭环控制策略及湿度开环控制策略,通过分析两种控制策略的调节过程,比较了这两种多区独立新风系统控制策略的优点及不足。 在本文提出的多区独立新风+冷辐射顶板复合系统控制策略的基础上,在独立新风+冷辐射项板实验台上搭建了该复合系统的控制系统并进行了多组复合系统的控制实验。在实验中,首先分析了最不利参数法对房间湿度的控制过程,实验结果表明该方法能够有效保持多区空调系统内各分区的相对湿度。其次,通过多个具有不同送风温度的实验过程,可分析得出本文提出的控制策略能够有效根据送风温度的差异对房间温度进行调节。再有,通过对该复合系统全天控制过程的分析,说明了本文提出的极限进水温度的控制策略有效地避免了系统运行时可能发生的结露问题,同时能够将多区空调房间的温度参数控制在了其设定值±0.5。C范围内,并保证每个空调区的相对湿度都处于其设定值的±10%。这些实验结果说明本文提出的控制策略不仅能够有效防止结露问题,还可以有效控制多区空调系统的温湿度参数,能够实现对多区独立新风+冷辐射顶板空调系统的有效控制


Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang, Xiaowei Zheng. ASHRAE Transactions, 2009-01

ABSTRACT | This paper adopts data processing methods and data mining technology to develop a building energy consumption model, based on an energy consumption database of commercial buildings that includes 95 commercial buildings in Shanghai. Data transformation and data reduction are conducted to clear up data relations in the database. Three methods for missing data handling as well as outlier inspection are used for data processing. The software SAS is used as the tool for data processing and data mining. An optimum regression model of building energy consumption is made for each missing data element. Through comparing the three optimum regression models and their prediction results of building energy consumption, it is found that the Regression Imputation Method was the best method to handle missing data, and a regression model with operation time of HVAC system, cooling capacity, ratio of office area to total gross area, and hotel area to total gross area was the most reasonable prediction model of the energy consumption of commercial buildings in Shanghai.

左明明, 潘毅群. 建筑热能通风空调, 2008-12

ABSTRACT | 本文首先介绍全建筑能耗模拟软件EnergyPlus的性能和特点, 重点说明它在模拟大型公共建筑时所具有的优势。通过比较EnergyPlus与其他能耗模拟软件的特点,讨论了如何使用EnergyPlus最大限度地反映建筑各系统如空调系统、照明系统、生活热水系统等的复杂构成及它们之间的相互耦合关系。然后采用EnergyPlus对拟申请美国LEED绿色建筑认证的某大型公共建筑进行能耗模拟并计算全年能耗费用。按照LEED标准的要求建立ASHRAE基准模型,通过比较ASHRAE基准模型和设计模型的全年能耗, 讨论有效降低建筑全年能耗的途径并建立节能模型。在节能模型中, 透明围护结构的遮阳性能得以加强,建筑系统中部分设备的效率得以提高,并引入日光照明、人员传感器等技术。结果表明,本文提出的节能模型与ASHRAE基准模型相比, 全年耗电量减少了4.7%, 全年耗气量增加了6.9%, 全年电费减少了14%, 全年总能耗费用减少了7.75%。

瞿燕, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 暖通空调, 2008-10

ABSTRACT | 根据2010年上海世博会总体规划对世博园区围栏区内的建筑群进行空调动态负荷预测,采用建筑能耗分析软件DOE-2.1c, 建立了五大永久性建筑群、外国国家馆群、国际组织馆群、企业馆群的空调动态负荷分析模型,针对临时性展馆提出了模块式分类简化法。通过研究世博会期间逐时空调动态负荷、空调负荷率的时间分布、月空调负荷、设计日逐时负荷等, 分析了世博园区各建筑群的空调负荷特性。通过确定三大负荷敏感度因子——气象参数变化因子、人流量变化因子和新风供给方式变化因子进行了负荷情景分析。

ABSTRACT | The Shanghai South Railway Station, which connects urban subways and inter-city railways, is one of the largest transportation hubs in Shanghai and East China. This paper presents study on indoor environment, bascally consisting of temperature distribution and daylight performance, of the waiting hall of the Station through the combination of computer simulation and on-site measurement. The waiting hall is 30 m high and roofed with transparent glass. In order to analyze its vertical thermal stratification, daylight performance and its positive and negative effects, CFD and daylight computer simulation as well as on-site measurement for temperature stratification and daylight illuminance were conducted. Simulation results have been compared with measured data and reasons that account for the difference been analyzed too. The prediction for the vertical temperature stratification has been validated for further design guidelines of highly-glazed atrium-type spaces.

瞿燕, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 建筑节能, 2008-07

ABSTRACT | 根据2010年上海世博会总体规划, 采用建筑全能耗分析软件DOE-2, 对世博园区围栏区内的建筑群进行负荷变化情景分析。确定了三大负荷敏感度因子——天气变化因子、人流量变化因子和新风供给方式变化因子, 采用2004年和2005年实际气象年的天气参数和世博园区内可能出现的3种人流量模式以及不同的新风供给方式对空调负荷进行敏感度分析。结果显示, 三大空调负荷度敏感因子均对世博园区空调负荷有较大影响。

ABSTRACT | 建筑能耗模拟是绿色建筑设计和建筑节能改造的必不可少的支持工具。首先介绍了建筑能耗模拟的基本原理, 包括正向建模和逆向建模方法, 然后介绍了三种常用的建筑能耗模拟软件和相关的专业分析软件。


Yiqun Pan, Rongxin Yin, Zhizhong Huang. Energy and Buildings, 2008-04

ABSTRACT | Energy simulation models are developed with EnergyPlus for two office buildings in a R&D center in Shanghai, China to evaluate the energy cost savings of green building design options compared with the baseline building. As a R&D center of an international IT corporation, there are data centers in the two buildings, which make them different from typical office buildings. The data centers house high energy consuming IT equipments and need 24 h air-conditioning every day all year round. In order to achieve energy cost savings, multiple energy efficiency strategies are employed for design proposed building, encompassing high performance building envelope, lighting system, and HVAC system. Through energy modeling, the design proposed options are compared to an ASHRAE 90.1-2004 compliant budget model to highlight energy cost savings versus “standard practice” and show the potential LEED™ Credit EA1—Optimize Energy Performance. Meanwhile, they are also compared to China Code model to figure out the energy cost savings versus the most popular practice conforming to China Public Building Energy Saving Design Standard. The whole building energy simulation results show that the yearly energy cost saving of the proposed design will be approximately 27% from China Code building and 21% from ASHRAE budget building, which can achieve 4 points for LEED credit due to energy performance optimization.


Yu Wang, Bernhard Schwarz, Yiqun Pan, Bingsen Chen, Hans Wiedmann, Chun Xie, Huiying Wang, Ying Yu, Xiao Feng. Mechatronics, 2008-04

ABSTRACT | Mechatronics is a new emerging discipline challenging the traditional engineering thinking and practices. The Chinese–German School of Applied Sciences (Chinesisch-Deutsche Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften, CDHAW) is an educational project of the Chinese Ministry of Education (MoE) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), implemented by the Tongji University and a consortium of German Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS). Mechatronics engineering is one of its three majors at present. This paper discusses the structure, orientation and curriculum design of mechatronics engineering education at CDHAW of Tongji University.

郑晓卫, 潘毅群, 黄治钟, 楼振飞. 暖通空调, 2008-04

ABSTRACT | 简要介绍了上海市商用建筑信息数据库和数据挖掘技术相关知识,运用回归归因法解决数据库中缺失数据问题,并对异常点进行检测;选择统计学方法进行数据挖掘,并分析评价由数据挖掘得到的商用建筑能耗预测模型。

赖艳红. 硕士论文, 2008-03

ABSTRACT | 辐射供冷技术历史悠久,但是由于各种原因,辐射供冷远没有辐射供暖普及。随着工艺技术的发展和人们观念的转变,人们认识到辐射冷顶板作为一种空调系统末端装置,其节能性和舒适性突出,符合现代空调发展的要求,其应用是广阔的。本文分别研究了金属辐射冷顶板和毛细管辐射冷项板的换热机理,建立了辐射冷顶板热量传递模型。通过实验研究和CFD模拟验证辐射冷顶板模型的合理性,两类辐射冷顶板制冷量实验值与理论计算值的误差分别为6%和0.6%。采用辐射冷顶板模型分析计算了影响辐射冷顶板供冷的影响因素,重点分析了冷媒水温度、流量和室内温度对辐射冷项板供冷能力的影响。研究结果表明,冷媒水温度和室内温度对辐射冷顶板供冷能力影响显著;冷媒水流量对辐射冷顶板供冷能力影响较小,金属辐射冷顶板供冷能力随冷媒水流量的增大而提高,但是当流量增大到一定值时,金属辐射冷项板供冷能力稳定在某一水平不再增大;毛细管辐射冷顶板的供冷能力随流量的增大而缓慢提高,但变化量非常小。

潘毅群, 黄治钟, 吴刚. 暖通空调, 2007-07

ABSTRACT | 总结了建筑能耗模拟的校验方法与步骤,并将其应用于某建筑的能耗分析。采用Visual DOE4.0建立了建筑能耗基本模型, 比较了模拟结果与实际能耗数据, 对模型进行了调整和校验, 直至误差符合相关标准。用经过校验的基本模型分析了该建筑的能耗构成, 并模拟分析了三种节能措施的节能效果。


Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang, Gang Wu. Energy and Buildings, 2007-06

ABSTRACT | The method of calibrated computer simulation is summarized on the basis of related literatures and guidelines. It is used to analyze the energy performance of a high-rise commercial building in Shanghai, China. DOE-2 energy model is built up with the detailed data of building and system that are collected on as-built drawings, specifications, operating records and site surveys. Model calibration is conducted on the comparison between simulation output and measured energy use. Energy model is adjusted until statistics indices are met in compliance to applicable standards and guidelines. Calibrated model is used in the performance analysis for energy conservation measures (ECMs) that are about to be implemented in the retrofitting project of the high-rise, including using variable speed chilled water pumps instead of constant variable speed ones, using free cooling during winter and mild seasons, decreasing lighting power densities. Energy saving performance is simulated and calculated to find out which ECM is the best option for the building.

郑晓卫. 硕士论文, 2007-03

ABSTRACT | 本文首先分析上海市商用建筑信息数据库,找出影响建筑能耗的主要因素,对数据库中的数据进行数据变换和数据规约,整理和提取建筑能耗及其主要影响因素的相关信息数据,作为数据处理及数据挖掘研究的数据基础。 本文选择三种合适的缺失数据处理方法,结合异常点检测等数据处理方法,使用统计软件SAS 实现数据处理和数据挖掘研究,针对三种缺失数据处理方法分别得到三个建筑能耗最优回归模型。对三个最优回归模型及其预测结果进行分析,最终确定回归归因法处理缺失数据的效果最好,回归模型Ⅱ为本研究阶段最合理的商用建筑能耗预测模型。

郑晓卫, 潘毅群, 黄治钟, 楼振飞, 吴刚. 上海节能, 2006-12

ABSTRACT | 介绍了建筑能耗基准评价方法和国外建筑能耗数据库的发展动态以及两个著名的建筑能耗基准评价工具。简要叙述上海市商用建筑信息数据库和商用建筑能耗预测工具的研究情况。

郑晓卫, 潘毅群, 黄治钟, 吴刚, 楼振飞. 节能与环保, 2006-12

ABSTRACT | 介绍了建筑能耗基准评价方法和国外建筑能耗数据库的发展动态以及两个著名的建筑能耗基准评价工具。简要叙述上海市商用建筑信息数据库和商用建筑能耗预测工具的研究情况。

陈晨, 潘毅群, 黄治钟, 楼振飞. 全国暖通空调制冷2006学术年会, 2006-10

ABSTRACT | 本文介绍了上海市商用建筑信息数据库, 包括建筑信息和历史能耗数据两部分。建筑信息主要包括建筑基本信息、空调系统信息和建筑使用情况。其中, 基本信息包括竣工年份、建筑面积、层高、围护结构材料、玻璃材料、建筑功能分区等信息;空调系统信息包括空调冷热源、空调系统形式、新风系统、冷却塔容量等相关信息;建筑使用情况包括空调运行时间、建筑使用时间等信息。历史能耗数据部分则包括了该建筑近几年全年各月的电、气、油等能源的使用情况。

ABSTRACT | The method of calibrated computer simulation is summarized and introduced based on related literatures and guidelines, which is used to analyze the energy consumption of two high-rise commercial buildings in Shanghai, China. The detailed data of the buildings and systems are collected and input to build up models with DOE-2, then the output of simulation is compared to the measured energy consumption data to refine and calibrate the models. Several energy conservation measures (ECMs) are analyzed based on the calibrated models, including using variable speed chilled water pumps instead of constant variable speed ones, using free cooling during winter and mild seasons, replacing old low efficiency cooling towers with new high efficiency ones, decreasing lighting power densities. Energy saving performance is simulated and calculated to find out which ECM is the best option for each building.

Huang Zhizhong, Pan Yiqun. Simbuild 2006, 2006-08

ABSTRACT | A statistics-based method for hourly solar radiation estimation is introduced in the paper. On the basis of hourly extra-atmospheric horizontal solar radiation calculation, a statistical method is adopted to find out the relationship between solar radiation in normal direction and total solar radiation on extra-atmospheric horizontal, as well as the relationship between diffuse solar radiation and solar radiation in normal direction from typical meteorological year data. By these two relationships and other relative data found in hourly real meteorological year data, the hourly solar radiation data of real meteorological year can be calculated.

陈晨, 潘毅群, 黄治钟, 吴刚. 暖通空调, 2006-04

ABSTRACT | 采用能耗模拟软件eQUEST对上海市某商用建筑建立模型, 对模型进行校正之后计算出该建筑的能耗情况, 在此基础上提出6项节能措施, 并分析了其节能效果, 验证了计算机模拟技术在建筑能耗分析和节能评估中的适用性。

瞿燕, 魏黎, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 制冷空调与电力机械, 2006-03

ABSTRACT | 根据上海地区的实际情况和低密度住宅现状的调查结果, 以《夏热冬冷地区居住建筑节能设计标准》为参考, 借助于能耗分析软件TRACETM 700对目前低密度住宅的一些常见墙体形式和新型墙体材料进行热工性能模拟, 并进行简单的经济分析, 得出一些结论和提出建议。

ABSTRACT | 本文首先建立上海市商用建筑信息数据库,包含历史能耗数据、建筑基本信息、空调系统信息和建筑使用情况等数据,并以问卷调查的形式收集95 幢商用建筑的信息作为本数据库的基本数据。通过对这些基本数据的整理、分析和研究,得出这些商用建筑的运行使用情况和能源消耗特点,进一步找出影响建筑能耗的主要因素,并以此作为数据挖掘研究的基础和依据。 本文的数据挖掘过程是由SAS 软件的EM 功能模块来实现的。在上海市商用建筑信息数据库的基本数据的基础上,按照SAS 软件提出的SEMMA 数据挖掘方法论,建立一个完整的数据挖掘流程,并借助多元线性回归和主成分分析的数据挖掘算法得到两个回归模型。通过对两个模型的解释、说明、比较和验证,最终确定回归模型I 作为本研究阶段的商用建筑能耗预测模型。 本文首次将数据挖掘技术引入建筑能耗的研究领域,对这一新方法的可行性和可用性做了深入研究,并取得了较好的结果,为数据挖掘技术在暖通专业,尤其是在有关建筑能耗的研究领域中的应用提供了有益的参考和借鉴。

陈晨, 潘毅群. 制冷空调与电力机械, 2006-01

ABSTRACT | 介绍了美国环保局(EPA)发起的“eeBuildings”项目所提出的“无成本、低成本节能措施”的思想, 通过分析该项目在美国和上海的成功案例和经验, 得出了无成本、低成本节能措施的特点, 并进一步提出适用于上海市商用建筑的无成本、低成本的节能措施。

龙惟定, 潘毅群, 黄治钟. 暖通空调, 2005-06

ABSTRACT | 简要介绍了中德两国政府间教育合作项目——同济大学中德工程学院的背景和进展。该学院借鉴德国应用科技大学的有益经验, 强调教学的学术性与实践性相结合, 突出教学过程中的校企联手。“建筑设施智能技术”专业主要培养具有工业实践能力的建筑设备高级工程技术人才和管理人才, 为我国本科院校建筑环境与设备工程专业的工程师培养探索一套新的办学体制和运作模式。

潘毅群, 吴刚, Volker Hartkopf. 暖通空调, 2004-09

ABSTRACT | 介绍了新一代建筑全能耗分析软件EnergyPlus的基本原理、特点和新功能及其与DOE-2的比较, 并将其应用于某一实际的建筑冷热电联产系统的模拟, 根据模拟结果对整个系统进行了全年能耗和经济性分析

蔡浩, 龙惟定, 潘毅群, 严立, 忻尚杰, 缪小平. 建筑热能通风空调, 2004-03

ABSTRACT | 分析了地下工程对能源系统的特殊需求和现存问题,指出燃料电池技术在地下工程中的应用优势和发展前景。简要介绍了燃料电池的原理、种类和特点以及燃料电池建筑冷热电联产系统的原理和组成,对燃料电池冷热电联产系统在地下工程中的应用配置方案进行了探讨。

潘毅群, 黄治钟, 张蓓红, 周辉, 龙惟定, 王超群, 蔡浩. 暖通空调, 2004-02

ABSTRACT | 该新建医院拟采用分布式供能系统, 通过对现有医院的实际调查和计算模拟, 对该医院的热、冷、电负荷进行预测, 并在测算负荷基础上对分布式供能系统的方案可行性进行分析。


Yiqun Pan, Hui Zhou, Zhizhong Huang, Yi Zeng, Weiding Long. Energy and Buildings, 2003-10

ABSTRACT | Two modern office buildings in Shanghai with typical variable air volume (VAV) systems were selected for research. Four separate spaces on a standard office floor in each building facing different directions (north, south, east, and west) were selected for thorough site measurements of outdoor airflow rates and indoor air quality (concentrations of CO2 and PM10) during typical days of the four seasons (summer, autumn, winter, spring). Computer simulations and calculations were also done of outdoor airflow rates and CO2 concentrations in the four-test spaces on an hourly basis for the entire year. In addition to the site measurements, monthly electrical consumption for the two buildings was recorded or estimated. Simulations and calculations were performed of the buildings’ energy consumption and energy cost using two different outdoor air control strategies of a typical VAV system as well as a fan coil unit (FCU) system. The site-recorded data, or estimated data, and simulation results are compared and analyzed. The study reveals that in a VAV system, the outdoor airflow rate distributed to each zone varies greatly, especially during part-load hours, making it difficult to always ensure sufficient outdoor air in each zone and avoid indoor air quality (IAQ) problems. However, this problem can be prevented by using appropriate outdoor air control strategies—e.g. a fixed high level total outdoor airflow rate.

潘毅群, 龙惟定, 范存养. 暖通空调, 2003-08

ABSTRACT | 对上海市 7幢高层办公楼同时进行了室内热环境、空气品质、视环境和听觉环境的现场测试和满意度调查 ,分析和比较了客观测试和主观调查的结果 ,对这 7幢办公楼的室内环境品质进行了综合评价。

V. 哈特科普夫, 潘毅群, 吴刚, R. 布莱姆. 暖通空调, 2003-02

ABSTRACT | 介绍了燃料电池的基本工作原理、特点和种类, 以及一种固体氧化物燃料电池在作者所在大学建筑冷热电联产项目中的应用。

周建戎, 潘毅群. 制冷, 2002-12

ABSTRACT | 太阳能空调系统是新型的空调系统, 本文对其组成、效率、种类和设计模拟工具进行了综述

潘毅群, 龙惟定, 范存养. 暖通空调, 2002-12

ABSTRACT | 根据对上海市区 7幢甲级办公楼的室内空气品质和新风量的现场测试结果 ,试图分析办公楼的室内空气品质和新风量的关系 ,以及室外空气品质对室内空气品质的影响。

龙惟定, 潘毅群, 白玮. 暖通空调, 2001-12

ABSTRACT | 在对上海7栋智能建筑的实测和调研中发现 ,对室内环境品质的主观问卷调查与客观实测数据之间没有明显的相关性 ,有的甚至大相径庭。分析表明, 这些大楼空调系统的设计、安装和运行对室内环境品质的主观调查结果有很大的影响, 主要影响因素有: 室内设定参数, 室内气流分布, 新风供给方式, 窗是否能开启, 空气龄, 楼宇自控理念等。提出了改善室内生态环境的建议。

倪凌, 潘毅群. 洁净与空调技术, 2001-11

ABSTRACT | 介绍超细微粒的污染源、特性及其对人体健康的影响,分析在评价室内空气品质时测量超细微粒的必要性。

龙惟定, 潘毅群, 白玮. 暖通空调, 2001-08

ABSTRACT | 从智能建筑和室内生态环境的概念出发 ,论述了保证智能建筑室内环境品质的基本原则 ,介绍了选用节能窗、建筑外遮阳板等被动式和采用置换通风、冷辐射吊顶等主动式方法 ,在智能建筑内创造良好的生态环境、保证室内环境品质的途径 ,提出对建筑自动化系统中环境品质控制的建议

ABSTRACT | 叙述相变材料式蓄冷系统的3种运行模式及3种配置各自的特点, 以某商业性建筑物为例计算和比较常规系统与各种蓄冷系统的运行能耗与电费, 分析拉大电价比对总电费的影响。3种运行模式为: 全蓄冷; 主机优先式部分蓄冷; 蓄冷优先式部分蓄冷。3种配置为 :主机上游; 主机下游; 并联.

潘毅群. 制冷技术, 2000-09

ABSTRACT | 本文介绍了办公楼的室内空气污染途径及控制方法:从设计、安装、运行、维护几个方面讨论办公楼的通风系统对室内空气品质的影响和解决方法:最后叙述了世界通风标准的发展。

潘毅群. 制冷与空调, 2000-08

ABSTRACT | 综述ASHRAE62-89“可接受的室内空气品质的通风”以及世界各国的通风标准的修订和发展,根据世界上各大组织的专家、工程师及物业管理人员针对诸标准所展开的讨论,展望二十一世纪通风新标准,提出作者的个人看法。

潘毅群, 白玮, 龙惟定, 范存养. 暖通空调, 2000-06

ABSTRACT | 对上海某 6层商场的室内空气品质作了为期 4天的现场测试和主观调查。结果表明 ,该商场存在各层温度分布不均匀、换气量不足等问题

John D. Gilleard, Pan Yiqun. Facilities, 1999-03

ABSTRACT | China is currently the fastest growing economy in the world. This paper discusses the current state of property management in Shanghai and reviews the challenges and opportunities for facility management in this city. In particular, it focuses on the embryonic role of FM resulting from the changes that are taking place in attitudes, both at the corporate and government level. It considers issues arising from personal observation of, and visits to, companies in Shanghai, and discussions with professionals in the property management sector in China. It describes typical property management provision in Shanghai and the growth in the importance of training for property management as part of the growing recognition of the significance of facility management in China. However, it concludes that until the property management industry fully matures it is unlikely that facility management will be widely practised for some time.

龙惟定, 潘毅群, 范存养, 许雷, 胡欣. 暖通空调, 1998-12

ABSTRACT | 根据上海地区办公楼、商办楼、宾馆和商厦能耗调研的数据,对上海公共建筑空调能耗的现状作了评价。认为上海建筑用能水平较低,用能不尽合理。提出用系统能量效率比用单位面积平均一次能耗量作为建筑节能的评价指标更为合理。

潘毅群, 陈沛霖. 同济大学学报, 1998-10

ABSTRACT | 建立相变材料式蓄冷糟的数学模型,对各种蓄放冷工况进行数值模拟,全面地分析相变材料式营冷糟的蓄放冷特性,并将计算结果和实验结果相比较,以验证数学模型.

潘毅群, 陈沛霖. 暖通空调, 1998-06

ABSTRACT | 建立了相变材料式蓄冷系统的三大部件即蓄冷设备、制冷系统、空调负荷的数学模型,对常规系统、全蓄冷系统和部分蓄冷系统分别进行了动态模拟,计算出供冷季的总运行能耗和电费,分析比较了这三种系统的特点。